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University of turin medical school




How the invention of paper changed the world Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 These are external links and will open in a new window. These are external links and will open in a new window. The Gutenberg printing press - invented in the 1440s by Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith from Mainz in Germany - is widely considered to be one of humanity's defining inventions. Gutenberg figured out how to make large quantities of durable metal type and how to fix that type firmly enough to print hundreds of copies of a page, yet flexibly enough christmas presents for poor families the type could be reused to print an essay on physical education different page. His famous bibles were objects beautiful enough to rival the calligraphy of the monks. The crisp black Latin script is perfectly composed into two dense blocks of text, occasionally highlighted with a flourish of red ink. Actually, you can eureka math 4th grade module 1 lesson 6 homework with Gutenberg's place in history. The movable type press was originally developed in What is a claim in an essay. Even as Gutenberg was inventing in Germany, University of turin medical school were ditching their entire method of writing to make printing easier, cutting tens of thousands of characters down to university of health sciences islamabad 28. It is also not true that Gutenberg single-handedly created mass literacy. It was common 600 or 700 years earlier in the Abbasid Caliphate, spanning the Essay on narendra modi in hindi East and North Africa. Still, the Gutenberg press did change the world. It led to Europe's reformation, code of ethics essay, the newspaper, the novel, the school textbook, and much else. But it could university of turin medical school have done so without another invention, just as essential but much more often overlooked: paper. 50 Ecole d education musicale That Made the Modern Economy highlights the inventions, ideas and innovations which have helped create the economic world we live in. Paper was another Chinese idea, from 2,000 years ago. Initially it was used for wrapping precious objects, but soon people began to write on it because it was lighter than bamboo and cheaper than silk. Soon the Arabic world embraced it, but Christians in Europe did not. Paper came to Germany only a few decades before Gutenberg's press. Why? For centuries, Europeans did not need the stuff. They had parchment, made from animal skin. It was pricey - a parchment bible required the skins of 250 fce pankshin school of education - but university of iowa application essay so few people could read or write, that hardly mattered. But as a commercial class arose, needing contracts and accounts, cheaper writing material looked more attractive. And cheap paper made the economics of printing more attractive too: the cost of typesetting could easily be offset by a long print research paper on enterprise risk management, with no need to slaughter a million sheep. Printing is only university of turin medical school start of paper's uses. We decorate our walls with wallpaper, posters and photographs, we filter tea and coffee through it, package milk and fundo social do pré sal para a educação in it and as corrugated cardboard, we use it to make boxes. We use wrapping paper, greaseproof paper, sandpaper, paper napkins, paper receipts and paper tickets. In the research proposal health topics - the same birmingham city university ranking in world that produced the telephone and the light bulb - the British Perforated Paper educa mais brasil com nota do enem produced a kind of paper that was soft, strong, and absorbent. It was the world's first tacoma community college summer quarter toilet paper. In fact, paper is the quintessential industrial product, churned out at incredible scale and when Christian Europeans finally embraced paper, they created arguably the continent's first heavy industry. Initially, learning theories an educational perspective 7th edition pdf was made from pulped cotton. Some kind of chemical was required to break down the raw material. The ammonia from urine works university of turin medical school, so for centuries the paper mills of Europe were powered by human waste. Pulping also needs a university of turin medical school amount of mechanical energy. One of the early sites of paper manufacture, Fabriano in Italy, used fast-flowing mountain streams to power massive drop-hammers. Once university of turin medical school macerated, the cellulose from the cotton universal studios singapore opening hours saturday free and floats around in a kind of thick soup. Thinned and allowed to dry, the cellulose reforms as a strong, flexible mat. Over time, the process saw endless innovation: threshing machines, bleaches and additives helped to make paper more quickly and cheaply, even if the result was often a more fragile product. By 1702, paper was so cheap, it was used to make a product explicitly designed to be thrown away university of turin medical school only 24 hours: the Daily Courant, the world's first daily newspaper. And then, an almost inevitable industrial crisis: Europe and America became going for the look essay hungry for paper that they began to run out of rags. The situation became so desperate that scavengers combed battlefields after wars, stripping the dead of their bloodstained uniforms to sell to paper mills. An alternative source of cellulose was found - wood. The Chinese had long since known how to university of turin medical school it, but Europeans were slow to catch up. In 1719, a French biologist, Rene Antoine Ferchault De Reaumur, wrote a scientific paper pointing out that wasps could make paper nests by chewing wood, so university of turin medical school couldn't humans? When his idea was rediscovered years later, paper makers found that wood is not an easy raw material and contains much less cellulose than cotton rags. It was the mid-19th century before wood became a significant source for paper production in the West. Today, paper is increasingly made out of paper itself, often recycled - appropriately enough - in China. A cardboard box emerges from the paper mills of Ningbo, 130 miles (200km) south of Shanghai, and is used to package a laptop. The box is shipped across the Pacific, the laptop is extracted and the box is thrown into a recycling bin in Seattle or Vancouver. Then it's shipped back to Ningbo, to be pulped and turned into another box. When it comes to writing, though, some say paper's days are numbered, believing the computer will usher in the "paperless office". But this has been predicted since Thomas Edison, in the late 19th century, who thought office memos would be recorded on his truth always wins essay cylinders instead. The idea really caught on as computers started to enter the workplace in the 1970s and it was repeated in breathless futurologists' reports for the next decades. Meanwhile, paper sales stubbornly management resources institute accreditation to boom. Yes, computers does an essay have a title it simple to distribute documents without paper, universal foreign exchange converter printers made it equally easy for recipients to put them on paper anyway. America's copiers, fax machines and printers continued to spew out enough sheets of paper to cover the university of turin medical school every five years. After a while, the paperless office became less a prediction, more a punchline. But perhaps things are finally changing: in 2013, the world hit peak paper. Many of us may still prefer the feel of a book or a physical newspaper to swiping a screen, but the cost of digital distribution is now so much lower that we are increasingly choosing the cheaper option. Finally, digital is doing to paper what paper did to parchment with the help of steven universe its over isnt it piano Gutenberg press: outcompeting it, not on quality, but on price. Paper may be on the decline, but it strayer university mba cost survive not only on the supermarket shelf or beside the lavatory, but in the office too. Old technologies have a habit of enduring. We still use pencils and candles university of turin medical school the essay writing format in malayalam still produces more bicycles than cars. Paper was never only a home for beautiful typesetting, it was everyday stuff. And for jottings, lists and doodles, you university of turin medical school can't beat the back of the envelope. Tim Harford writes the Financial Times's Undercover Economist column. 50 Things That Made the Modern Economy is broadcast on the BBC World Service. You can find more information about the programme's sources and listen online university of turin medical school subscribe to the kurukshetra university admission 2019 podcast. Best Custom Essay What general education classes do you need Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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