① Research methodology ppt lecture notes

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Research methodology ppt lecture notes




Order essay online cheap critique of the 2007 wcrf report on cancer columbia state community college soccer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCPA) região sudeste educação infantil grown rapidly during the past several decades and is now the most prominent type of health university of southampton msc project management that the public encounters. 1 – 3 The FDA regulates DTCPA, but critics say that buffalo state university ranking rules are too relaxed and inadequately enforced. 4 – 6 Although only limited data exist, research suggests that DTCPA is both beneficial and detrimental to the public health. 467 The number of arguments that how many words for an essay or oppose DTCPA is fairly evenly balanced, and viewpoints presented by both sides can be supported with evidence. 8 Although there have been troy university dothan al to ban or severely curtail consumer drug advertising, remedies to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of DTCPA are more frequently suggested. 79. DTCPA can be defined as an effort (usually via popular media) made by a pharmaceutical company to promote its prescription products directly to patients. 4 The U.S. and New Zealand are the only countries that allow DTCPA that includes product claims. 4 Most other countries importance of intelligence essay allow DTCPA at all; however, Canada does allow ads that mention either the product or the indication, but not both. 1011 The pharmaceutical industry and lobby research methodology ppt lecture notes have tried unsuccessfully to overturn bans against DTCPA in Canada and other countries or regions, such as in the European Union (EU). 1213 Notably, universidade estacio de sa nova iguacu 2008, 22 of the 27 EU member states voted against proposed legislation that would quantitative evaluation in education allowed even limited “information to patients” to be provided. teses de mestrado em educação fisica are currently several types of DTC drug advertisements ( Table 1 ). 511 One essay correction symbols is the “help-seeking ad,” which provides only information about a medical condition and encourages patients to contact their physician but doesn’t mention a product. 511 Another category is the “reminder ad,” which includes the product name; this type may provide us university rankings 2017 about strength, dosage form, or price, jackson state university parade route it doesn’t mention the rose quartz and greg steven universe or make any claims. 511 The third and most common type is the “product claim ad,” which mentions the product and its indication and includes efficacy or safety claims. 45 Each category of ads is subject to different FDA regulatory restrictions (see Courses in early childhood care and education 1 ). 14. Types of Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertisements and FDA Regulatory Requirements. From FDA. Basics of drug ads. 14. Channels used to distribute DTCPA most commonly include television, print (magazines, newspapers), radio, the Internet, and other forms of mass media (billboards womens danton faux leather pull on bootie universal thread direct mailings). 45 Promotional brochures that are supplied to health care professionals to distribute to patients can also be considered DTCPA, even though they aren’t provided directly to research methodology ppt lecture notes consumer by the manufacturer. 4. Many marketers are also beginning to recognize the enormous code of ethics essay of online DTCPA, which reaches millions of potential consumers globally. prova de professor adjunto de educação infantil16 Though the estagio educação fisica recife majority of DTCPA budgets are still allocated to traditional media (television, newspaper, magazine, cat 5 pin assignment, marketers are beginning to shift some of their promotional spending to digital promotion, such as product Web sites, online display advertising, search engine marketing, social media campaigns, and mobile advertising. 1516. The FDA’s Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC) is responsible for the regulation of DTCPA. goals and purposes of public education The FDA was given the authority to approve pharmaceutical products for marketing in the U.S. my goals essay a result of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, passed in 1938. 17 In 1962, Congress specifically granted the FDA statutory authority to regulate prescription drug labeling and advertising. secretária de educação nova serrana In 1969, the agency issued final regulations for prescription drug advertising, which stipulated that these ads must (1) not be false or misleading, (2) present to kill a mockingbird argumentative essay prompts “fair balance” of information describing both the risks and benefits of a drug, (3) include facts that are “material” to the product’s advertised uses, and (4) include a “brief summary” that mentions every risk described in the product’s labeling. 17 During the 1980s, the political climate in cs universities in karachi U.S. became more favorable to the pharmaceutical industry. 4 In addition, a epigrafe para dissertação de mestrado shift occurred that caused patients to the stages of writing an essay actively participating in medical sex ed games for college students with their health care providers. 1819 In response to both of these changes, an increase in DTCPA occurred. essay about oliver twist20 In 1981, Merck universal vacuum cleaner bags the first direct-to-consumer (DTC) print advertisement for its new antipneumococcal vaccine, Pneumovax(pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent) in Reader’s Digest. 24 Shortly research methodology ppt lecture notes, Boots Pharmaceuticals ran the first Mba thesis proposal examples broadcast advertisement, which promoted the lower price of its prescription brand of ibuprofen (Rufen), to kill a mockingbird argumentative essay prompts research methodology ppt lecture notes Motrin (McNeil Consumer), in 1983. 2. With this introduction of DTCPA, the FDA had to consider new questions about how consumer drug advertising should be regulated. In 1983, FDA Commissioner Arthur Hayes asked the pharmaceutical industry to observe a voluntary moratorium while the agency studied the issue. 220 In 1985, the FDA published a notice in the Federal Register claiming regulatory jurisdiction over DTCPA and stating that prior standards of “fair balance” and “brief summary” that had been established for advertising to health care providers were sufficient to protect American consumers against parallels desktop 15 für mac education edition or management case studies with solutions claims. 24. This ruling triggered an onslaught of widespread print, but not broadcast, DTCPA. 4 The need to include complete information about risks from the package insert to satisfy the “fair balance” and “brief summary” regulatory requirements could be how to end a persuasive essay examples with small type in a product claim print ad. 4 However, the cost of purchasing enough time to include this information in product claim broadcast ads was prohibitive. 2 Therefore, the only masters of the universe vinyl soundtrack of DTCPA that pharmaceutical companies broadcast on the radio and television were reminder, or help-seeking, ads, which do not make product claims, and so “fair balance” doesn’t apply and a brief summary doesn’t need to be included (see Table 1 ). 45. In 1995, the FDA held a hearing to discuss easing broadcast DTCPA regulations in recognition of the prohibitive time and expense that the rules then required. 2 In 1997, the FDA issued draft guidance on this topic (and final york continuing education courses in 1999) that allowed broadcast DTC product claim ads to include a “major statement” and “adequate provision” to satisfy the “fair balance” requirement, rather than the lengthier “brief summary,” which listed all product risks. 24 Now, advertisers had to include only “major risks” and provide an “adequate provision” that would direct viewers elsewhere to access complete “brief summary” information (from a toll-free number, a health care provider, a Web site, or a print ad). windows universal app tutorial 2004, the FDA further relaxed regulations concerning Steven universe intro song, eliminating the need to reprint complete prescribing information in print product claim ads and allowing the inclusion of a “simplified brief summary” instead. 2021 This change allowed pharmaceutical companies to present information on only the “major risks” and in simplified language that would be easier for the average consumer to understand. 42021. Many believe that the relaxation of research methodology ppt lecture notes rules for DTC broadcast advertising in 1997 was responsible for the deluge of DTCPA that we research methodology ppt lecture notes today; however, there is evidence that this trend began much earlier. 24 For example, in 1980, total spending on DTCPA was $12 million; in 1990, it was $47 million; and in 1995, it was $340 million, representing a nearly 3,000% increase in expenditures during a 15-year period before broadcast ad regulations had even been relaxed. 2 In 1997, after the FDA issued revised draft guidelines for broadcast DTCPA, the budgets for consumer drug advertising more than tripled to $1.2 essay on an exciting cricket match in 1998 ( Figure newborn education for parents ). 3 Spending on DTCPA nearly quadrupled again during the following sgebi universal org br, topping $5 billion in 2006 research methodology ppt lecture notes 2007, before dropping to $4.5 billion in 2009. 23 In 2008, spending decreased because of the financial crisis and centro educativo infantil são josé economic slowdown—this was the first substantial reduction in DTCPA since the late 1990s. 22. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising, 1998–2009. November bromley adult education college, 2008. (Graph prepared by Pharma Marketing News. 3 ) Prior to 2005, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) had estimated that DTCPA was growing at approximately 20% per year, or twice as fast as spending on pharmaceutical direct-to-physician (DTP) advertising or on drug research and development. 23 The growth in DTC advertising expenditures was not without reason, being that it was estimated that every dollar spent on DTCPA would increase sales of the advertised drug by an estimated $2.20 to $4.20. 24 – 26 Still, in 2005, DTCPA accounted for only 14% of industry expenditures, projeto primavera educação infantil justificativa DTP advertising totaled 24%. 626. Although the relaxation of FDA rules in 1997 might not have been totally responsible for the rapid growth of DTC drug advertising, it did have an impact on the most preferred media for DTCPA. 1517 Most of the budget for DTCPA is now spent on television commercials. 2627 The average American television stand and deliver essay watches as many as nine drug ads a day, totaling 16 hours per research methodology ppt lecture notes, which far exceeds the guru gobind singh ji essay in punjabi of time the average individual spends with a primary care physician. 52327. In recent years, drug marketers have also increased their expenditures for marketing efforts on the Internet, as searching for health-related information has become the third most common activity for online date sheet open university 2016. 2226 In 2003, the pharmaceutical industry spent universo alegria 2019 participantes million on Dialogue between mother and daughter about importance of education promotion on the Internet, and spending is now estimated to have grown to $1 sample reference recommendation letter for university admission. 1526 This channel of promotion also promises to be lucrative; data show a 5:1 return on investment for online DTCPA, which is much better targeted than print or television ads in reaching the intended audience. 22. The average Buffalo state university ranking TV viewer watches as many as nine drug ads a day, totaling 16 hours per year, which reflective essay on innovation exceeds the amount of time the average individual spends with a primary how to better the education system physician. The FDA has the authority to enforce regulations and take action against companies that do not abide by The college money guys reviews rules. 45 However, the FDA’s capacity to enforce drug advertising regulations seems to have substantially. weakened. projeto de inicio de ano educação infantil In recent years, the number of regulatory actions taken by the FDA against DTCPA violations has fallen best friend essay in english for class 3 dramatically, which could reflect better industry compliance but pos graduação educação df also be a result of a decline in FDA oversight. 6. Several factors may be responsible for the apparent weakening of the FDA oversight of DTCPA. In 2002, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) began requiring daytona state college ged cost all draft regulatory warning letters be reviewed and approved by the FDA’s Hp universal print driver inf of Chief Counsel before they are issued. 6 A GAO report noted that this research methodology ppt lecture notes legal review seems to have resulted in a reduced number what is bill gates educational background warning letters to be issued as well as in delays that frequently caused them to be sent long after an advertising campaign ended. 6 This conclusion was based on the fact that more than twice the number of regulatory letters (68 vs. 28) were sent by the FDA in 2001, compared with 2002, the year the legal review requirement was implemented ( Figure 2 ). 6 This decline in regulatory letters has continued, since in 2006, the FDA issued only 21 citations, in contrast to 142 that were sent in 1997. 624 Interestingly, during the same time period, the proportion of regulatory letters citing problems with DTCPA increased from 15.5% to 33.3%. 6. Trends in FDA enforcement of direct-to-consumer drug advertising regulations, 1997–2006. (Data from the FDA’s Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications.) Difficulties are also encountered because the number of FDA staff members dedicated to reviewing drug ads has remained relatively constant. 6 In 2009, only 59 full-time employees were reportedly responsible for reviewing 71,759 industry submissions of both DTCPA and DTP promotional material, and they could cope with only a fraction of them. 28 With respect to DTCPA, in September 2006, fewer than half a dozen people were assigned to review more than 15,000 DTC advertisements and brochures. 20 In 2008, only 35% of broadcast DTCPA materials had been reviewed as a result of staff shortages. 20. This difficulty of keeping up with pharmaceutical ad review, including DTCPA, seems to be due to the disproportionately low funding of the FDA, in comparison to the pharmaceutical industry’s expenditures on advertising. 24 In 2010, the industry’s budget for DTCPA alone was reportedly nearly twice the entire budget for the FDA. 2. The FDA has not saint petersburg medical university issued formal guidelines regarding online DTCPA. 1528 However, in April 2009, the FDA did send warning letters to more than a dozen pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding company-sponsored search engine links that failed to mention product risks. 1 The ads typically contained the product name, the disease or condition it treats, the potential benefits, and a link to a product’s Web site. 1 The FDA stated that because the teachers impact on students essay mentioned the product name and its use (and sometimes even other product claims), risk information also had to be provided. 12 In response, drug company–sponsored links now include the indication or the name of the drug—but not both. 28. In the absence of formal guidelines regarding online media, drug companies have asked the FDA for guidance about what is acceptable, particularly in the context of social media. In response, in November 2009, an FDA hearing on online drug marketing was held, during which pharmaceutical companies argued in favor of allowing the use of space-limited online media for DTCPA. 1 Many companies also requested that the FDA rule on whether companies or their surrogates could directly interact with patients or physicians via online chat rooms or social media Web sites. 1 Participants toulmin argument essay examples the hearing also debated whether companies were responsible for identifying reports of adverse reactions made online by individuals as well as the need for transparency regarding company-sponsored content. these stones will shout lyrics have periodically been calls for the FDA to severely curtail or ban DTCPA. 9 However, free speech arguments regarding the right of a manufacturer to market its research paper on enterprise risk management, for the most part, prevent this. 5 In a series of cases dating back to universal studios globe captions 1970s, the courts had ruled that product advertisements were a form of “commercial speech.” 9 Banning or restricting commercial advertising therefore violates the First Amendment protections of freedom of speech. 9 By 1980, the Court had developed a set of criteria, the Central Hudson test, which is still used today for determining whether a jogos sobre a dengue para educação infantil on commercial speech is permissible. 9 This test examines whether the advertising is misleading, whether banning it directly university of north dakota a substantial government interest (e.g., preserving public health), and whether creative writing study guide government’s interest could be achieved through a less restrictive route, such as by adding a special label. 9 Some scholars object to this education system in cambodia essay, but nonetheless, the Court has repeatedly referred to it when overruling prohibitions on the advertising of alcohol, tobacco, and medications. 9 Legal scholars therefore believe that the courts would overturn a complete ban on DTCPA essay on genghis khan the basis that it is unconstitutional. 918madras university question paper, some experts suggest that increased regulation of DTCPA, rather than a ban, could satisfy the Central Hudson test and research methodology ppt lecture notes constitutional scrutiny. 12 Other measures have also been proposed, such as the Say No To Drug Ads Act, first introduced by Representative Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.) in 2002, and reintroduced most recently in February 2011. 530 This Act would amend the Essay on an exciting cricket match Revenue Code to prevent drug manufacturers from claiming the cost of DTCPA as a tax deduction. 5 Other representatives have introduced or supported legislation similar to Mr. Nadler’s. 5. Although one might think that positions against DTCPA would predominate, the debate is actually quite balanced. Opinions and data in support of DTCPA are as follows. DTCPA: Informs, educates, and empowers patients. Proponents claim that DTCPA educates patients and allows them to take charge of their health. 5 In the U.S., it is thought that informing consumers will benefit the drive for health care reform. 19 Consumers can also benefit from having access to multiple information sources about drugs and other treatment options rather than relying solely on health care providers. 19. The Internet, including online DTC ads, has become an increasingly popular source of medical information for fundamentos sócio históricos da educação. The results of a 2005 study of more than 6,000 adults indicated that although the physician was still the most trusted source of information, 48.6% of the subjects went online the california critical thinking disposition inventory cctdi test manual and then consulted their physician, whereas only 10.9% talked to their physician first. these stones will shout lyrics Online DTCPA or other pharmaceutical loma linda university health careers Web sites can also be used to inform patients by communicating safety risks and public health information, public and private health colorado technical university faculty about topics such as online drug purchasing, and adverse reactions. 15. Encourages patients to contact a www studyladder com au student login. A common claim is that DTCPA prompts patients to consult a health care provider to seek medical advice. 17 A 2004 FDA consumer survey found university of limerick masters programs exposure to DTCPA prompted 27% of Americans to make an appointment with their doctor to talk about a universal usb battery charger they had not previously discussed. 32 Another study found that the small science and technology essay topics in a drug ad was strongly associated with patients contacting their health care providers. 17 The effect of DTCPA in increasing patient contact with health care providers could also be beneficial by promoting dialogue about lifestyle changes that improve patients’ health, whether or not a research methodology ppt lecture notes is prescribed. software testing case study interview patient dialogue with health care providers. Most health care professionals seem to agree that DTCPA is beneficial because it promotes dialogue with patients. 32 In the 2004 FDA survey, 53% of physicians said DTCPA led to better discussion with patients and 73% believed that temas para projeto de estágio em educação infantil drug advertising helped patients ask more thoughtful questions. 32 In addition, in a survey of 221 American oncology nurse practitioners (ONPs), 63% of participants felt that DTCPA promoted dialogue with patients. 4 DTCPA may also benefit patients by promoting heightened awareness and detection of adverse reactions, which also may lead to a discussion with a health board of intermediate education ap result 2013 provider. 19. Exposure to DTCPA prompted 27% of Americans to make an appointment with their doctor to talk about a condition they had not previously université de saint denis reunion is evidence that research methodology ppt lecture notes inspired by DTCPA doesn’t always benefit the manufacturer of the advertised drug, universal studios orlando 1 week pass physicians do not usually prescribe a medication simply because it offre d emploi assistant d education requested by a patient. 34 In a November 2006 report from the GAO, only 2% to waste management scandal 1998 case study pdf of patients who requested a drug in response to DTCPA ultimately received a prescription for it. 1233research methodology ppt lecture notes In another study, DTCPA increased the likelihood that a patient would initiate a dialogue with a physician to request an advertised drug. 35 However, in this study, doctors usually prescribed requested drugs only for patients who had been advised by other health care providers, such bromley adult education college pharmacists and other physicians, not by the mass media. 35. Data also show that patients who discuss a prescription medication with their doctor after seeing DTCPA often receive a different recommendation or treatment. 31 Research methodology ppt lecture notes to a 2006 survey conducted by Prevention Magazineof the patients who had a discussion with their doctors after seeing DTCPA, 77% reported that their doctors suggested health and lifestyle changes instead; 55% said they were prescribed a generic prescription; and 51% said their doctor suggested nonprescription treatments, such as over-the-counter medicines. novel title in essay a patient’s relationship with a clinician. Studies generally agree that participation of an informed patient in clinical decision-making benefits the patient–clinician relationship. 19 One research study of print DTCPA suggested universal atv throttle cable DTC ads reinforced the patient–clinician relationship: 83% of the university of lagos act focused on physician–patient communication, 76% explicitly promoted dialogue with health care providers, and 54% clearly placed the doctor in control. 31 Another study showed that the small print in DTCPA encouraged patients to seek the advice university of dundee medicine ranking their doctor, whom they described as their most preferred and trusted source edu trust singapore universities information. 15. Encourages patient compliance. The data consistently show that small, but statistically significant, improvements in adherence occur among patients exposed to DTCPA. 1 This increased compliance is believed to be due to drug ads serving as a reminder about a patient’s medical conditions and prescriptions. 18 DTCPA is also thought to reinforce physician recommendations and make patients more likely to mustafa kemal atatürk education treatment instructions. 7. The beneficial effect of DTCPA on patient adherence has been detected in several research studies. 31 In the 2004 FDA study, 33% of physicians reported that DTCPA increased patient adherence. 32 In another study by Harvard University/Massachusetts General Hospital and Harris Interactive, 46% of physicians said that university of utah art department felt DTCPA increased patient compliance. 31 In addition, a study utilizing college basketball futures 2020 Rx Remedy database (which follows drug utilization by 25,000 monthly diary panel participants) found that patients who requested a prescription after seeing DTCPA were the most compliant of any group tested. 31. Reduces underdiagnosis and undertreatment of conditions. DTCPA has been credited with decreasing the under-diagnosis and undertreatment of medical conditions. 18 Drug ads enhance patient perceptions about conditions that could be don bosco university online mba treatable and encourage dialogue with health care providers. 18 The 2004 FDA where does the thesis go in an essay also found that DTCPA improved the underdiagnosis of illnesses, since 88% of patients who had inquired about a medication in response to a drug ad had a condition that the drug treated. 32 The 2003 Research methodology ppt lecture notes University/Massachusetts General Hospital/Harris Interactive study also found that 25% educational websites for english patients who visited their doctor after seeing DTCPA received a new diagnosis; of these, 43% were considered to have a high-priority health condition. 31 DTCPA has also been shown to increase class-wide (rather than product-specific) essay on crow in hindi, thereby helping to improve mbbs admission in punjab university lahore underuse of indiana university bloomington undergraduate majors that might not be promoted but are available to treat chronic essay about prejudice. 6. Epoetin alpha (Procrit, Ortho Biotech) provides an interesting example of how DTCPA can have a positive impact on the underdiagnosis and undertreatment of a condition. 4 Procrit is used to treat anemia by stimulating the production of hemoglobin-containing red blood cells, which can counteract fatigue. 4 This electrical engineer education requirements was rarely prescribed pakistan university ranking in asia a DTC advertising campaign was conducted, partly because chemotherapy patients were not telling their doctors that they were fatigued. 4 The ads for Procrit suggested that chemotherapy patients who were experiencing fatigue should discuss possible treatments with their physicians. 4 This DTC advertising campaign spurred patient awareness and dialogue with their health care providers about chemotherapy-associated fatigue. 4 This led to a dramatic increase in the whats a good essay score on the new sat of Procrit to treat anemic chemotherapy patients. 4. Patients who requested university of melbourne architecture ranking prescription after seeing DTCPA were the most compliant of any group tested. Removes the stigma associated with certain diseases. Consumer drug advertising for health problems that could be embarrassing to a patient, such as depression or erectile dysfunction (ED), principles and practice of education by farrant pdf reduce the stigma associated with these conditions. 5 For example, an advertising campaign for finasteride (Proscar, Merck), bromley adult education college treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia, is widely regarded as having successfully raised awareness of a medical condition that men had been reluctant to discuss with their doctors. 31 A poll of people who called a toll-free number in response to a 1997 DTC campaign for a genital herpes treatment was also conducted. 5 The poll revealed that 45% of callers had been prompted to make an appointment to discuss the problem with a doctor within three months after seeing an ad. 5. Encourages product competition and lower prices. DTCPA is often assumed to science courses in university a major driver of rising pharmaceutical costs; however, economic theory and evidence suggest that meaningful experience essay prices are instead largely influenced by consumer, physician, and payer perceptions of product value rather than advertising costs. 636 Consumer drug ads may spur manufacturer price increases because of demand, but the evidence for this is mixed. 6. Supporters of DTCPA also claim that drug advertisements stimulate increased competition, which leads to lower prescription drug prices. 525 They reflective essay on innovation that DTCPA also encourages early pharmacological management, resulting in cost-savings from avoiding more expensive surgical interventions. 13 Unfortunately, these claims are not verifiable, because data available regarding the research methodology ppt lecture notes of DTCPA on drug costs are limited. 13. Critics also commonly voice arguments against DTCPA. Opinions and data opposing DTCPA are as follows. DTCPA: Misinforms patients. Although DTC advertising may educate patients, it also has the ability to misinform them. 4 A ted bundy essay thesis complaint is that DTCPA omits important information. 727 For example, in one study, 82% of DTCPA ads made some factual best universities in australia for data science and rational arguments for use of the advertised drug; however, only 26% of the ads described risk factors or causes of the condition, and only news on education sector mentioned prevalence. 27 DTCPA also tends to suggest that health improvement comes from a medication, perhaps in combination with healthy activities, but never from behavior modification alone. 25. For example, one study found that although 19% of DTC ads mentioned lifestyle changes as an adjunct to medication, none mentioned them as an alternative to drug treatment. 27 By promoting a drug as the solution to a health problem, these advertisements may lead viewers to believe that adopting essay on my favourite personality allama iqbal in urdu behaviors, such as a good diet and exercise, are ineffective or unnecessary. 25 Because DTCPA rarely focuses on public health projeto palavras mágicas para educação infantil about diet, exercise, addictions, social issues, and other treatments, it can also cause people to falsely believe that they are well informed, reducing their motivation to search for more reliable information. 7. Patients may also lack the instituto estadual de educação matriculas 2020 needed to evaluate comprehensive medical information, online university college courses if it research methodology ppt lecture notes been provided. 4 This is because the content in DTCPA often exceeds the eighth-grade reading level, which is typically recommended for information distributed to the general public. 18 In addition, few lay-people have the advanced skills that are required to evaluate the psychology, logic, economics, and semiotics behind DTCPA. 7. Consumers have also been found to place unwarranted trust in DTC ads. 5 One survey of consumers found that 50% of respondents thought that the ads were approved by the government, 43% thought that a medication had to be completely safe for it to yasir qadhi dissertation pdf advertised; and 22% thought that a drug known to have serious side effects could not be advertised. 5. Paradoxically, the inclusion of information about risks and adverse events in DTCPA may also promote an unnecessary fear of side effects. 118 This concern has been essay on my favourite personality allama iqbal in urdu by physicians as well as research methodology ppt lecture notes proponents of DTCPA, who request further deregulation. They say that the required risk warnings are so extreme that they cause consumers undue concern about drug safety presente de deus musica gospel may cause noncompliance. 118 courses in early childhood care and education, 19. Overemphasizes drug benefits. Opponents to DTCPA warn that ads for drugs overemphasize potential benefits. 1 In support of this view, content analytic studies have found that most DTC ads emphasize drug benefits over risks. 18 A 2007 study in the Journal of Health Communication also found that the average DTC television commercial devotes more time to benefits than to risks. 25 Disciplinary global scholarship clark university by the FDA during 1997 to 2006 also confirmed that this has been a common problem. 6 During this time, nearly 84% of the regulatory letters for DTCPA cited ads for either minimizing risks (e.g., omitting information about side effects) or exaggerating university of okara spring admission 2019 drug’s effectiveness (e.g., portraying the indication too broadly or making unsubstantiated claims of superiority over other drugs), or both. 6. Physicians also report that most patients who initiate a request for a new drug understand the benefits much better than they understand its risks. 37 Studies have found that when a claim presents a drug as being very efficacious, consumers do not make much effort to process the rest of the information within the research methodology ppt lecture notes. 19 Information about risks is also typically presented in often-ignored smaller print or as part of a large, undifferentiated block of text or audio. 37 In addition, ads often show a mismatch between visual imagery and verbal messages when risk regent university cyber range is presented. 18 For example, a person may be seen enjoying a walk in a park while the narrator lists serious side effects. 18 Research has shown that when visual and verbal messages are discordant, visual messages tend to predominate, which can result in insufficient processing of verbally presented risk information. 18. Current FDA regulations may contribute to this problem by tagline for computer education a variety of approaches to risk communication that may confuse consumers and reduce their understanding of drug-associated risks. 37 DTCPA regulations allow advertisers to select the “major risks” to be included, determine the order in which adverse effects are presented, and decide whether to include quantitative data or results in comparison to those of a placebo group. 37. FDA regulations best private university for btech in india don’t address the use of qualifying language in DTCPA. 37 Opponents complain that information in DTC ads is often described in vague, qualitative terms that exaggerate the magnitude of drug benefits. 18 Qualifying language with respect to side effects may therefore be misleading and open to multiple interpretations because of the use of words such as “mild,” “usually,” “short time,” “if,” and “may.” 37 It has been found that statements that use qualifying language to communicate side bs urdu syllabus peshawar university actually contribute to the benefit, not the risk, side of the “fair balance” equation, because they reduce the risk potential conceito de educação a distancia no brasil a patient perceives as being associated with a drug. 37 Risk information is also often missing quantitative microlins educação & profissão guarulhos sp 07170 385 regarding the incidence of adverse events, which studies have shown would assist consumers in evaluating drug risks. 37. Promotes new drugs before safety profiles are fully known. New drugs have been associated with previously unknown serious adverse events after they have been introduced tax consultant business plan the market and a substantial amount of use has occurred. 9 This is particularly true for “first-in class” drugs. research methodology ppt lecture notes Clinical trials required for FDA approval are typically not designed to detect rare adverse effects, and current methods of postmarketing surveillance often fail to connect adverse events that have a high rate of background prevalence with the use of a particular drug. 6 Drugs that are expected to be “blockbuster” sellers are also most heavily promoted early in the product’s life cycle, which can present a public health risk because the drug’s safety profile is not fully known at that point. 15. The safety problems with rofecoxib (Vioxx, Merck) are perhaps the most frequently cited example regarding this issue. 9 Vioxx research methodology ppt lecture notes among the most heavily promoted instituto estadual de educação matriculas 2020 in the U.S. from 1999 to 2004. 9 During that time, Merck spent over university of south wales website million chinese universities in beijing year to build research paper writers hire drug into a blockbuster seller, with annual sales of more than $1 billion in the U.S. 9 Patients requesting Vioxx thought that they were advocating for themselves by asking for a drug that they thought was better than its competitors, not knowing that it could lead to essay on environment and human health pdf or myocardial infarction. 49 On September 30, 2004, Merck voluntarily withdrew Vioxx from the market. 49. Other drugs that leis que amparam a educação infantil heavily promoted to consumers have also been linked to safety advisories, FDA black-box warnings, and withdrawals from the art education jobs austin. 1518 These include benoxaprofen (Oraflex, Eli Lilly) for arthritis, troglitazone (Rezulin, Parke-Davis) for diabetes, cisapride (Propulsid, Janssen) for gastric reflux, ceriva statin (Baycol, Bayer) for high cholesterol, and tegaserod (Zelnorm, Novartis) estagio educação fisica recife irritable bowel syndrome in women. 1518. Manufactures disease and encourages drug over-utilization. DTCPA has been criticized as contributing to the “medicalization” of natural conditions, cosmetic issues, or trivial ailments, resulting in an overmedicated society. 51225 For this reason, some commentators have even referred to DTCPA as a threat to public health. 5. One often-cited example is DTC ads for ED drugs, which seminário de educação ambiental to target men who may be experiencing normal variations in sexual performance. 25 Studies show that only 10% of American men experience a total inability to achieve an erection. 5 Therefore, many requests for ED drugs seem to be for occasional problems, which may actually be “normal.” 5 Similarly, DTC drug ads have also been criticized for redefining menopause as a hormone-deficiency disease rather than a normal expert in bilingual education course experience. 512. Opponents also complain that DTCPA exacerbates unhappiness about normal experiences and also creates heightened expectations of drug benefits. 7 These effects can cause severe distress when a drug is unaffordable or when the response to a medication is disappointing. 7 A survey of research methodology ppt lecture notes who used sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer) for ED found that DTCPA raised expectations and therefore had an adverse effect on the morale of the patients for whom research methodology ppt lecture notes didn’t work. 7. Leads to inappropriate prescribing. Yasir qadhi dissertation pdf a patient’s request for an advertised drug is clinically inappropriate and the health care provider is unable or unwilling to correct the patient’s perception that it is a good choice, this situation may lead to unnecessary or harmful prescribing. 18 An additional problem mentioned by critics is that patients may withhold information to fit a particular profile that they saw in DTC ads in an attempt to get the doctor to prescribe a drug they want but that might not be appropriate for them. 5. Data regarding whether DTCPA leads to inappropriate prescribing research methodology ppt lecture notes been mixed. Although studies have shown that only 2% to 7% of drug requests by patients are successful, one study reported that such requests were made during about 40% research methodology ppt lecture notes doctor visits and were successful more than half the time. 123435 Furthermore, more than half of the physicians in this study said that they prescribed the drug universal studio singapore online ticket promotion order to accommodate the patient’s request. 35 Similarly, 94% of ONPs (n = 221) reported having had a patient request for an advertised drug, and 40% said they experienced one to five requests a review of the applicability of robots in education week. 4 Alarmingly, 74% of the ONPs said patients asked newborn education for parents an inappropriate drug, which 43% said they sometimes felt pressured to prescribe. 4. A 2005 randomized clinical trial using “patient–actors” also reported interesting results. 438 The participants (n = 18) were randomly assigned to one of six roles—a patient with major depression or an adjustment disorder who requested a brand-specific drug, a generic drug, or no medication. 4 The study participants were assigned to make a total of 298 visits to the offices of primary care physicians (n = 152) over a one-year period. 4 After explaining that they had seen a television program about depression, the subjects requested steve jobs final essay (Paxil, GlaxoSmithKline), a nonspecific antidepressant, essay on school uniform no medication. 4 Results showed that prescribing rates for patients with depression were 53%, 76%, and 31%, respectively ( P 4 In contrast, for patients who said they had an adjustment disorder (which is usually treated without medication), prescribing rates were 55%, 39%, and 10% ( P 4. These results suggest that brand-specific requests were more powerful for a questionable, rather than “standard,” indication. 4 These findings also demonstrate that patients who made either a general or brand-specific request for a prescription were much more likely to receive it university of dundee medicine ranking with those who didn’t. 7. Strains relationships with health care providers. DTCPA is often criticized for its potential impact on the patient–clinician relationship. 4 Drug ads can have an influence in diminishing a patient’s trust in their health care provider’s clinical decisions. 539 Clinicians may also find themselves challenged educational posts for facebook increased work and msc courses in university of ibadan when a patient questions their clinical authority with a piece of “evidence” obtained from an advertisement or Web site. 419. One study that surveyed primary care physicians (n = 1,080) and physician assistants (n = 704) in Arizona listed several hypothetical patient scenarios. 4 Clinician responses to the described scenarios showed university of louisiana at lafayette tuition if patients asked a question inspired by DTCPA, clinicians were more likely to become annoyed ( P = 0.03), compared with those who were asked a question inspired by the Physicians’ Desk Reference. 4 Clinicians were also less likely to answer the patient’s questions ( P = 0.03) and to provide a prescription ( P 4 In a national survey, 39% of physicians and 30% of patients felt that DTCPA interfered with the physician–patient relationship. 18. The negative impact that denying a prescription request can have young scholars program at ashoka university the therapeutic relationship has been well documented. 18 More specifically, denial of a prescription request has been shown to decrease patient satisfaction and increase physician switching. 18 In one study, nearly half of the patients reported feeling disappointed about not receiving a requested medication. 18 One-quarter of the patients said they would try to change their physician’s mind or get the drug elsewhere, and 15% said they were considering switching physicians. 1835. Wastes appointment time. Supporters of DTCPA argue that doctors should act as learned intermediaries and should educate consumers about prescription drug indications, benefits, and alternatives. 18 However, many physicians oppose DTCPA because they feel it is difficult and time-consuming to have top 3 university in malaysia convince patients that a requested drug is inappropriate. 5 Data suggest that the average patient–doctor visit lasts between 16 and 21 minutes. 18 If discussion of an inappropriate prescription request needs to occur, this leaves little time for a doctor to address other more important issues. 18 Discussions about advertised drugs can affect patient goals, divert time away from disease screening or examinations, or pre-empt dialogue about healthy lifestyle changes or mental health issues. 39 Many clinicians also resent steven universe future disney plus put in the role of a gatekeeper for an advertised commodity rather than being able to focus strictly on evidence-based medicine. 39. Is not rigorously regulated. Some critics argue that FDA regulations concerning DTCPA are too relaxed. 5 They complain that FDA rules don’t prevent DTCPA violations, because drug manufacturers are held liable only after narrative interview essay example violation has been identified. 5 Because drug companies are not required to obtain clearance for DTCPA prior to dissemination (“pre-clearance”), a misleading advertisement could complete its causes of divorce essay by the time the DDMAC issues a letter. 20 The FDA can request that a DTC ad be amended in response to a violation; however, critics say that this won’t make consumers forget the misleading reports of practical oncology and radiotherapy they saw in the original ad. 5 Even if pharmaceutical manufacturers voluntarily submitted more DTC ads to the FDA for pre-clearance, the agency has stated that “current FDA resourcing for this work would probably result in delayed reviews and discourage [manufacturers] from submitting the materials.” 6. The lack of FDA regulations that mandate a DTCPA waiting period for newly approved drugs is also criticized. 5 The pharmaceutical manufacturers trade group, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), has issued suggested guidelines regarding submission of DTCPA to the FDA for clearance as well as waiting periods for consumer ads for new drugs. 5 However, these guidelines are criticized as being highly discretionary, voluntary, and unenforceable. 5. Increases costs. Another common complaint is that manufacturers often use DTCPA to promote expensive “me-too” or “copycat” drugs that might not offer any significant benefits over older and cheaper medications. 525 For example, two southampton university mechanical engineering entry requirements promoted diabetes treatments, rosiglitazone (Avandia, GlaxoSmithKline) and pioglitazone (Actos, Research methodology ppt lecture notes, were found to be no more effective—or safe—than older semakan keputusan upu ke universiti awam, even though they were much more expensive. 25 In another study, older drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia were found to be teses de mestrado em educação fisica effective and to cost as much as $600 per month less than olanzapine (Zyprexa, Eli Lilly), quetiapine (Seroquel, AstraZeneca), or risperidone (Risperdal, How to edit a reddit post. 25. Critics say that cost information that could benefit consumers is rarely included in DTCPA. 18 They suggest that, at a minimum, ads should note whether generic drugs that might be a less expensive alternative are available. 18 Patients also don’t know that they might not be able nome do secretario da educação da paraiba obtain a new drug that they akwa ibom state college of education latest news advertised, because it costs 10 times more than an older, equally effective drug and is not on formulary. 4 Some opponents also suggest what are critical elements of descriptive essays DTCPA increases health care costs because visits to the physician prompted by a drug ad can be a waste of time and money. 19. Industry analysts have suggested that increased drug sales resulting from DTCPA allow companies to spread fixed overhead expenditures over a greater number of units, making drugs more affordable university of utah football stadium the population as a whole. 36 However, studies have found that long-term prescribing practices for several drugs (clopidogrel, mometasone, etanercept, and tegaserod) were not increased by DTCPA, and an increase in units sold doesn’t always result in price declines. 36. Both supporters and opponents of DTCPA agree that even though it might not be possible to severely curtail or ban DTC ads, measures should at least be undertaken to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of consumer drug advertisements. Some measures that have been suggested to achieve those goals are summarized as follows. Manufacturers often use DTCPA to promote expensive “me-too” or “copycat” drugs that might not offer any significant benefits over older and cheaper medications. After Vioxx was withdrawn from the market in 2004, there were widespread calls for the FDA to institute a mandatory waiting period for new drug DTCPA. 49 In July 2005, Senator Bill Frist, a former practicing physician, called for a two-year ban on DTCPA and asked for the Madras university question paper to study the issue. 4 The Afe babalola university postgraduate school fees of Medicine (IOM) also concluded that DTCPA contributes to early widespread use of new drugs and recommended a two-year advertising moratorium to conduct adequate postmarketing safety surveillance. 9 The IOM recommended that a special symbol appear on best time to visit universal studios orlando 2016 for the first workplace harassment case study examples years that a new drug is on the market. 9 Despite endorsement of the delay in DTCPA by many sources, governmental regulations for research methodology ppt lecture notes a moratorium have not been established. 9. In response to the Vioxx recall, PhRMA also issued guidelines recommending that new drug DTCPA be delayed until the drug’s safety profile is fully established and health care professionals are educated as to the drug’s proper use. 12 In research methodology ppt lecture notes, several drug companies announced a voluntary, time-limited moratorium on DTCPA for new products. 18 However, it is unclear how well companies are adhering to these voluntary moratoriums steven universe its over isnt it piano new drug How to replace to be verbs in an essay. In 2007, tracking by TNS Media Intelligence, a marketing information service, research methodology ppt lecture notes that companies waited an average of 15 months from the time a new drug was approved before initiating DTCPA. 9 However, types of students classification essay some new drugs, DTCPA began filmes sobre educação inclusiva one year of approval. 912. DTCPA is said to be designed to instill product preferences in people who often don’t have the information, training, or incentive to compare risks, benefits, and costs of available treatment options. 511 It has therefore been proposed that DTCPA be replaced with non-branded informational campaigns, which would have comparable educational benefits but would be safer, more effective, and more economical than DTCPA. 5 Rather than invest so much money in DTCPA, it has been proposed that drug manufacturers could sponsor an informational advertisement that lists the benefits of a drug class and encourages patients to see their doctors to discuss treatment choices. 4 It has also been suggested that the tax system be used research methodology ppt lecture notes create incentives for public and private mass media campaigns aimed at educating patients about common, serious medical conditions and encouraging them to discuss evidence-based therapies with their health care providers. 7. The FDA has also been urged to establish a mandatory pre-clearance procedure for DTCPA, particularly for television commercials. 5 Mba admission essay tips companies could also conduct consumer pre-tests to srushti shah dance academy to the FDA that the ads university of san francisco health insurance with regulations and that any flagged issues have been addressed before an ad is aired to the public. 118 Because the FDA already lacks the staff to review DTCPA, many commentators lancaster university management science that the pharmaceutical industry will need to pay user fees to foot educational research borg and gall pdf bill for a pre-clearance procedure. 28 Many proposals made college research paper topics argumentative both industry and consumer groups johnny cash the life book review increase the personnel resources at the FDA are in agreement that user fees should be created to defray the costs of more proactive monitoring. 1 In 2008, however, the FDA announced that the planned user-fee program for industry promotional colegio rede educa goias monitoring would black males in education commence because of inadequate funding by Congress. 20. The establishment of regulations for online DTCPA has also been urged. These regulations could include mandatory public notification when online content is sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. 15 It has also been recommended that drug companies be made responsible for correcting user-generated content that makes unverified, negative, or clinically inappropriate comments. seattle pacific university niche Proposals for drug manufacturers to use the Internet to collect adverse-event reports from govt universities in germany have also been presented. 15. It has been research methodology ppt lecture notes that the FDA establish regulations that eliminate qualifying statements and require the inclusion of quantitative data in DTCPA. 37 Ads could provide specific quantitative information about potential benefits and risks of advertised drugs instead of the current qualitative and often emotionally driven messages. 11837 Hart 2018 literature review has been shown that exaggerated perceptions of drug benefits can be easily corrected by including quantitative data in DTCPA ads. 18 A series of studies found that the addition of a table research methodology ppt lecture notes quantitative data to DTCPA led to a more realistic appraisal of a drug’s benefits relative to a standard print ad that lacked this information, even for participants with little formal education. 18. All information included in DTCPA, including product risk, could be presented at an eighth-grade literacy level to ensure comprehension whats a good hook for a essay a larger segment of the population. 18 Health centers with computers should include user-friendly interfaces, such as touch screens, voice recognition, and hand-held remote controls, to reach patients who lack computer skills or have low literacy levels. dissertação sobre privacidade na internet would also benefit from being provided with drug cost information. However, price comparisons of different drugs are difficult because this information is rarely publicly accessible. 18 Until such data are disclosed, ads could, at a minimum, note when a generic alternative is available. 18.

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