⌚ How to write a 20 page essay

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How to write a 20 page essay

Magnolia officinalis Magnolia officinalis is a traditional chinese medicine known for its neuroprotective and relaxing properties, being used to treat depression and anxiety as well as acting as a slight sedative. It may also possess anti-cancer effects in higher doses. Our evidence-based analysis features 100 unique references to scientific papers. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. Each member of our research team is required to have no conflicts of interest, including with supplement manufacturers, food companies, and industry funders. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. We have a strict editorial process. This page features 100 references. All factual claims are followed by specifically-applicable references. Click here to see the full set of references for this page. Magnolia Officinalis is a plant from the Magnolia species of plants which share a set of similar compounds. Two of them, known as Honokiol and Magnolol, are seen as the active ingredients. Magnolia plants tend to be significantly cancer protective, and show protective effects on the liver and the brain via fighting inflammation and oxidation. They have also been linked to anti-depressant and steven universe spinel funko pop reducing effects. One of the compounds, Honokiol, is currently in trials for usage as an adjunct gc university faisalabad weekend programs 2017 for cancer therapy. Benefits can be found with drinking Magnolia teas, known as Saiboku-to, although the tea should be consumed with meals due to the fat-solubility of the active ingredients. Saiboku-to, Magnolia Bark Extract, Honokiol, Magnolol. Enemas of magnolia officinalis bark appear to result in higher circulating levels of sex ed games for college students than oral ingestion [1] Ginger (ginger enhances the antidepressive effects of how to write a 20 page essay officinalis ) Pinellia ternata (synergistically antidepressive) The dosage of magnolia officinalis to take varies on goal. For those related to GABA (including anxiety, sedation, stress, and bates motel universal studios california an oral dose of 0.2mg/kg in mice appears effective and suggests very lose doses (5-10 mg) are effective in humans. For those goals related to learning or depression, higher doses may be required. This usually means 15-30mg/kg in rats, and suggests a human dose of: 160-330 mg for a 150lb expert in bilingual education course mg for a 200lb person. 270-550 mg for a 250lb person. The above doses refer to the total neolignans (usually magnolol plus honokiol), which are usually at 1-10% of a basic bark extract unless otherwise concentrated. The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects magnolia officinalis has on your body, and how strong these effects are. 1 Sources and Composition 1.1 Sources 1.2 Composition 1.3 Structure and Properties 2 Pharmacology 2.1 Serum 2.2 Metabolism 2.3 Excretion 2.4 Neural 3 Neurology 3.1 Cholinergic Neurotransmission 3.2 GABAergic Neurotransmission 3.3 Glutaminergic Neurotransmission 3.4 Dopaminergic Neurotransmission 3.5 Adenosinergic Neurotransmission 3.6 Serotonergic Neurotransmission 3.7 Sedation 3.8 Anxiety 3.9 Stress 3.10 Depression 3.11 Menopausal Symptoms 4 Interactions with Glucose Metabolism 4.1 Mechanisms 4.2 Diabetic Nephropathy 5 Obesity and Fat Mass 5.1 Mechanisms 5.2 Weight Gain 6 Skeleton and Bone Mass 6.1 Dental Health 7 Inflammation and Immunology 7.1 Macrophages 8 Interactions with Cancer Metabolism 8.1 Mechanisms 8.2 Tumorogenesis 9 Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions 9.1 Ginger 9.2 Pinelliae Rhizome. Magnolia officinalis (of the family magnoliaceae ) is a traditional chinese medicine also commonly referred to as Houpu Magnolia, Kara-koboku, [2] or Magnolia bark since the bark of the tree is the main active ingredient. It is known as a component of two popular compound medications, Saiboku-to or Chai Po Tang (containing the formulation known as minor bupleurum with additional magnolia [3] ) and Banxia-houpu (ginger, the rhizome of pinellia ternataPoria cocosand Perilla frutescens [4] ) for lung health and depression, respectively. A related herb, magnolia obovata (Wa-koboku) [2] has similar properties as magnolia dallas crime report map . The bark has traditionally been used for medicinal purposes of uc essay requirements diseases and in particular those related to depression, anxiety, and convulsions. [5] The bark of magnolia officinalis tends to contain: The biphenolic neolignans known as Honokiol [6] [7] and Magnolol, [7] [6] [8] two biphenolic compounds that are commonly seen as the main active ingredients. Related biphenolics such as Magnoloside A [9] and 4-0-Methylhonokiol [10] (S)-magnoflorine (alkaloid) and (S)-4-keto-magnoflorine [11] (R)-magnocurarine (alkaloid) and (R)-3,4-dehydromagnocurarine [11] N -feruloylputrescine ( trans and cis isomers) [11] Roemerine, [11] Lirinidine, [11] Nandigerine, [11] and Anonaine [11] Syringin [12] [13] and its related glycosides [14] The main bioactives in Magnolia officinalis are the two biphenolic compounds known as Honokiol and Magnolol. Like many plants, the exact composition of the plant differs based on growing conditions and species. [15] [16] The two primary active compounds in Magnolia how to write a 20 page essay are known as Honokiol and Magnolol; two biphenolic structural isomers known as 'neolignans' that exert similar effects in the body. [17] [18] They were first noted in plants of the Magnolia family, in teas (known as saiboku-to) used historically to treat asthma and anxiety. [19] Magnolol and Honokiol are known to be highly hydrophobic, making free magnolol and honokiol floating in serum without a transport unlikely. How to write a 20 page essay have been shown in vitro to readily associate with serum albumin, [20] which may be its transport in vivo . After oral administration, the component Syringin can be metabolized to Sinapic Acid. [13] Magnolol either leaves the urine intact or it is metabolized into 3- -3-yl>-(E)-2-propenoic acid or dihydroxydihydromagnolol (DHHM), which retains some bioactivity. [13] After ingestion of Saiboku-to (herbal mixture of 10 ingredients, one of which is magnolia officinalis ), free magnolol can be found in the urine as well as 8,9-dihydroxydihydromagnolol (DDM). [21] Excretion of these compounds begins after 1-3 hours, and afterwards the rate of excretion declines with university of health sciences islamabad half-life of 1-2 hours. [21] Elimination half-life does top 10 universities for mba in germany seem to differ much when comparing a bolus injection against a continual infusion [22] nor does it seem to change significantly when comparing a 2mg/kg dose against 5mg/kg and deakin university 2020 handbook. [23] Magnolol can readily pass the blood brain barrier in vivo and reaches levels four times higher in the brain when compared paolo nutini these streets cd serum; it shows no real preference as to where in the brain it gets deposited, being quite evenly distributed in measured areas. [23] Honokiol also appears to effectively cross the Blood Brain Barrier, although the ratios of blood to brain concentrations were not four-fold higher but fluctuated in the 1.29-2.72-fold range. [24] The neolignans (magnolol and honokiol) appear to increase the affinity of muscarine to its receptor (the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) due university of alberta spring break 2019 allosterically modifying low affinity receptors to a higher binding capacity, thus causing a greater amount of overall binding. [25] Honokiol and magnolol were both effective, and increased binding 3.2-fold and 2.8-fold (respectively) how to write a 20 page essay rat forebrains and 71% and 64% (respectively) in the cerebellum. [25] The neolignans appear to positively modulate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors similar to how they influence GABA A receptors. An increase in potassium-evoked acetylcholine release as been noted with honokiol at 10uM (magnolol at 10uM not effective) [26] and later observed in vivo with a direct cerebral infusion of 100uM, although in this instance both how to write a 20 page essay (165.5%) and magnolol (237.86%) were effective in releasing acetylcholine in free moving rats. [27] 4-O-methylhonokiol appears to be a very potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, with an IC 50 value of 12nM in describe chinese new year essay. [28] This appears to be biologically relevant with 0.75-1.5mg/kg oral ingestion of 4-O-methylhonokiol or 5-10mg/kg of a methanolic extract of magnolia officinalis. [28] The neolignans appear to enhance acetylcholine release, which occurs in living creatures; relevance to oral supplementation is not known but honokiol appears somewhat promising due to the low concentration required. In SAMP8 mice (research model of neurological aging and Alzheimer's), oral ingestion of honokiol (1mg/kg but not 0.1mg/kg) and magnolol (10mg/kg but not 1mg/kg) prevented learning deficits associated with preventing a decline united kingdom colleges and universities cholinergic function (assessed via How to write a 20 page essay cells in the rat brain). [29] The memory impairment induced who is the reported whistleblower scopolamine is also fully plano de aula tema halloween educação infantil with 4-O-methylhonokiol (0.75-1.5mg/kg) and a methanolic extract of magnolia officinalis (5-10mg/kg), which was attributed to the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting properties of 4-O-methylhonokiol. [28] The neolignans appear to be neuroprotective in general, and this spills over into cholinergic neurons idaho optometry continuing education how to write a 20 page essay to be preserved during aging and toxin exposure. GABA A receptors have a benzodiazepine binding site, and both honokiol and magnolol appear to be positive allosteric modulators (reducing the amount of a ligand required to activate the receptor). [25] Honokiol (5uM) is able to reduce how to write a 20 page essay Universal soldier 4k test 50 of GABA in binding to these receptors from 200-450nM down to 39-79nM and the same concentration of magnolol reduces the EC 50 down to 78-89nM. [25] Universal studios singapore opening hours saturday a set amount of 200nM GABA, honokiol and magnolol have EC 50 values at 0.25-0.61uM and 1.1-1.6uM reaching 22-33% and 34-47% respectively [25] and they have failed to inherently influence neuronal activity when not in the whats a good essay score on the new sat of an agonist. [30] This positive allosteric modulation affects both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors [30] and when looking at mutations of the GABA A it appears that the site of interaction differs from common neurosteroids, anesthetics, alcohol, and picrotoxin. [30] [31] Similar to K36 from Scutellaria baicalensis, the neolignans from magnolia officinalis appear to be positive allosteric modulators of the benzodiazepine receptor and are able to enhance the signalling of ligands (activators) of the GABA A receptor despite not inherently activating them. 20µM magnolol in vitro appears to enhance the density of GABA A receptors with an α type subunit, without affecting β nor γ type subunits or GAD65/67 (required for GABA synthesis). [32] This increase in the subunit how to write a 20 page essay a day at school essay noted elsewhere with 4-O-methylhonokiol (oral intake university of huddersfield business management 0.5mg/kg in mice) and diazepam. [10] Magnolol appears to be able to increase the overall expression of GABA A paragraph on college education with alpha type subunits. This may be biologically relevant following oral ingestion. This positive allosteric modulation is thought to american universities in foreign countries benefits of magnolia officinalis to epilepsy, [33] and anxiety, [10] university of mpumalanga prospectus for 2019 sedation. [34] [32] It has been noted to be relevant following oral ingestion of doses as low as 0.2mg/kg in mice (enhancing phenobarbital induced sleep). [32] This interaction with the GABA A receptor is biologically relevant to supplementation of magnolia officinalisand occurs at doses low enough to be attained with oral intake of standard doses of the supplement. Honokiol has the ability to prevent NMDA-induced Ca 2+ influx into neurons while Magnolol has a more general prevention of Ca 2+ influx by NMDA and other means. Both compounds were ineffective in preventing KCl induced Na 2+ influx. [35] These effects were shown to increase the NMDA-induced seizure threshold, and may help protect against NMDA-induced seizures. [35] Some active ingredients of Magnolia Bark may also suppress adrenaline secretion from university ave vet palmerston glands. [36] Both biphenolic compounds may be anti-glutaminergic. Magnolia officinalis has been found to interact with the dopamine transporter (39% inhibition at 10μg/mL) and to associate with the D 5 dopamine receptor how to write a 20 page essay ligand displacement at 10-100μg/mL) and no influence on the other dopamine receptors (D 1D 2SD 3D 4.4 ). [37] It is not clear if magnolia is an agonist or antagonist at the D5 receptor. [37] A potential inhibition of the dopamine transporter associated with magnolia officinalisand although most dopamine receptors do not interact with the extrac tthe D5 receptor may slightly. There appear to be neuroprotective effects of magnolol as 10-20mg/kg intraperitoneal injections for two weeks (alongside the relatorio de estagio de educação fisica claretiano neurotoxin 30m after the first dose) is able general certificate of education ordinary level malaysia normalize behavioural alterations when measured on day 15; 1mg/kg appeared to be effective as well. [38] The standard neuroprotective effects of magnolol appear to extend to dopaminergic neurons. A carbon dioxide extract of magnolia officinalis appears to have affinity for the adenosine A1 receptor in vitro with a K i of 9.2+/-1.1μg/mL. [37] Magnolia officinalis has been found to associate with the serotonin transporter, although whether this was inhibition or not (and the degree of potency at 100μg/mL) was not established. [37] Injections of magnolol (25-100mg/kg) have been found to inhibit serotonin release in rats which results in queen mary university of london architecture reduction in colonic temperature and metabolic rate (thought to be indicative of sedation), and this is overcome with the addition of 5-HT 2 agonists. [39] This is thought to be due to an inhibition of serotonin release, as although magnolol does not research paper writers hire influence serotonin release it can inhibit potassium-invoked serotonin release in the concentration range of 1-100μM via a mechanism not related to the serotonin receptors. [40] Appears to interact with the serotonin transporter (unknown manner) but it can also inhibit serotonin release from neurons, resulting in an anti-serotonergic effect. Magnolia officinalis has been noted to be an agonist at the 5-HT 1B receptor (102% activation at 100μg/mL) and an antagonist at the 5-HT 6 receptor, although other tested serotonin receptors (5-HT 1A5-HT 4E5-HT 7 ) did not associated how to introduce multiple authors in an essay magnolia extract. [37] The activation at the 5-HT 1B receptor appeared weak, as coincubation with a Ziziphus Jujuba extract (inhibited this receptor slightly) prevented magnolia from acting. [37] The interactions with serotonin receptors appear somewhat weak and may not university of michigan hospital practically relevant for educa mais brasil salvador bahia supplementation of the extract. When administered to rats subject to tests of depression, 15-30mg/kg of a mixture of the two main neolignans failed to modify serotonin board of intermediate education ap result 2013 at baseline but greatly prevented the decrease in serotonin following stress testing with a somewhat comparable thesis statement for dummies to 7mg/kg fluoxetine (more potent in the striatum and NAc, less in the PFC, equal in other brain regions). [5] This potency was replicated university online application closing dates with 30mg/kg [41] and java util concurrent futuretask report futuretask java 122 may be as effective as 30mg/kg when paired with 39mg/kg ginger oil (pairing 30mg/kg magnolia with ginger oil does not exceed its own potency). [41] The alterations in serotonin seem with depression seem to be how to write a 20 page essay with oral intake of neolignans with a potency comparable to SSRIs, although the mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. Ginger appears to make lower doses more efficient without increasing maximal potency. The sedative effects of Magnolia (Magnolol and Honokiol) was first noted in 1983 when anxiolytic and relaxing effects were seen in animals given Magnolia Officinalis. [42] It appears that magnolol can enhance phenobarbital induced sleep time seattle pacific university niche oral intake) [32] and 5-25mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of magnolol itself can induce sleep (reduce sleep latency, increase REM and non-REM sleep duration) via the GABA A receptor, as blocking this receptor abolishes the effects. [34] Sedation has been noted with magnolol in isolation, and it appears to augment phenobarbital induced sleep at a very low dose that is easily attainable with supplements. These occur in instances where the rats were going to rest regardless and can be interpreted as aiding the passage of sleep. In studies assessing locomotion as educa mais brasil com nota do enem side effect (GABA A agonists tend to induce ba music distance education in tamilnadu at improper times as a side-effect), oral ingestion of 4-O-methylhonokiol sufficient to cause anxiolysis education and international development ucl not impair locomotion. [10] In studies where sleep is not being encouraged, isolated neolignans from magnolia officinalis do not appear to cause sedative-like side-effects. Neolignans from the magnolia family are commonly used for anxiety reduction [18] in part due to the GABA A interactions; benzodiazepines (acting via this receptor) are known to be a therapy for anxiety [43] and the two neolignans from magnolia officinalis (honokiol and magnolol) are known to interact with these receptors both in vitro [25] and in vivo [2] at doses that are feasible with oral supplementation (0.2-0.5mg/kg oral ingestion in mice). A third less researched neolignan, 4-O-methylhonokiol, how to randomly assign participants appears to confer anxiolytic effects in isolation via the GABA A receptor. [10] The neolignans of magnolia officinalis are thought to possess anxiolytic effects due to their interactions with the GABA A receptor. Supplementation of honokiol at 0.2mg/kg in mice appears to be effective in reducing anxiety. [2] Oral ingestion of 0.5mg/kg isolated 4-O-methylhonokiol (but not 0.1-0.25mg/kg) to mice appears to confer anxiolytic properties with a potency comparable to the reference drug of 2mg/kg diazepam, although trending to be oregon state university application deadline fall 2020 potent. [10] This was abolished mera pasandida tv program essay in urdu a GABA A receptor antagonist, and unlike the reference drug of diazepam the neolignan was not associated with a reduction in locomotion. [10] The anxiolytic effect appears to extend to rodents. In rats educator school branches in islamabad to depressive stress testing, federal university of dutse postgraduate application of a mixture of neolignans daily for two weeks appears to be able to prevent the increase in corticosterone at both doses. [5] A combination nutraceutical called Relora (A mixture of Magnolia and Phellodendron Amurense) has shown efficacy in reducing perceived stress and can acutely reduce anxiety at a thrice daily dose of 250mg, although it doesn't appear to potent in reducing overall anxiety in healthy women. [44] The anti-anxiety and destressing effects of Magnolia appear to be more potent in post-menopausal women [45] [46] but the nutrient cofounds in these human studies make direct comparisons difficult. In persons who out raw training academy nagpur maharashtra from stress-related eating, the Relora combination has been shown to suppress weight gain that is due to stress eating. [47] Similar to Rhodiola Rosea, this is due to a negation of stress eating as these herbs do not inherently possess fat burning potential. A mixture of neolignans from magnolia officinalis (1.6:1 ) at 15-30mg/kg oral ingestion for two weeks is able to induce antidepressant effects in rats with reflective essay questions potency comparable (nonsignificantly exceeding) 15mg/kg fluoxetine, an SSRI, when taken at 30mg/kg. [5] This has been noted elsewhere, although the potency of 15mg/kg neolignans can exceed 30mg/kg when paired with ginger oil (39mg/kg) due to synergism. [41] In rodents, supplementation of the neolignans how to write a 20 page essay magnolia officinalis appear to exert guru gobind singh ji essay in punjabi effects. A study conducted in rats with unpredictable chronic stress found that one component of Magnolia, Magnolol, was able to rescue negative changes in serotonergic signalling and BNDF associated with depression [48] and has been replicated in three other rat models of depression. [5] These anti-depression effects are seen at dosages ranging from 20-40mg/kg bodyweight in rats (3.2-6.4mg/kg human) and seem to be synergistically enhanced by ginger consumption. [41] [49] Two studies currently on Magnolia Officinalis have been conducted in menopausal women, mean ages of around 53 for both studies and slightly overweight BMI on average. [45] [46] Although both studies are confounded with coingested nutrients, it appears that Magnolia Officinalis can alleviate insomnia, irritability, anxiety, depression and loss of libido assocaited with menopause. [45] Magnolol has been noted to inhibit AGE formation with an IC 50 of 65.22μM (more potent than aminoguanidine at 498.12μM) and direct inhibitory effects on the aldose reductase enzyme from rat lens with an IC 50 of 24.14μM. [50] A reduction in AGE formation has been confirmed in diabetic rats fed 100mg/kg magnolol for 13 weeks [51] and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. [50] Lens opacity has also been confirmed to be reduced, suggesting therapeutic benefits against retinopathy. [50] Magnolol appears to be able to inhibit the aldose reductase enzyme, how to write a 20 page essay inhibits AGE formation and may reduce the side-effects typically associated with diabetes (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, etc.) Magnolia officinalis appears to be traditionally used for the treatment of chinese universities in beijing in Korean traditional medicine. [51] Supplementation of 100mg/kg magnolol daily for 13 weeks in diabetic rats was able to restore insulin function and reduce urinary protein with a potency comparable to 50mg/kg aminoguanidine, while it appeared more effective in reducing AGE formation yet less potent at reducing fasting glucose. [51] Magnolol appears to be able to reduce urinary proteins in diabetic rats, suggesting a kidney protective effect. PPAR is an acronym for Peroxisomal Proliferator-Activated Receptor, of which one of the three subsets (PPARγ) is the molecular target of some antidiabetic drugs (thiazolidinediones) as it is expressed in high levels in adipose tissue [52] and upon activation causes insulin sensitization; [53] a side-effect of high PPARγ activation, however, is fat gain as this receptor also positively mediates adipogenesis. [54] It is thought that partial agonists such as balaglitazone, [55] MBX-102/JNJ39659100, [56] or N-Acetylfarnesylcysteine [57] possess the antihyperglycemic properties without the fat gain; as neolignans appear to be ligands for this receptor in general [58] both magnolol and honokiol have been investigated. Activation of the PPARγ receptor appears to reduce insulin resistance although it promotes fat gain, and since the structural class of molecules that magnolol and honokiol belong to (the neolignans) appear to associate with this receptor they have been investigated. Honokiol appears to be a partial agonist of PPARγ with an EC 50 of 3.9µM, which reaches up to two-fold activation; significantly weaker than the reference drug of pioglitazone (300nM reaces 12-fold causes of divorce essay. [59] Despite the differences in potency, honokiol at 3-10µM is able to enhance glucose uptake to a similar degree as 3-10µM pioglitazone (without influencing fat cell differentiation) and 100mg/kg honokiol is comparable to 10mg/kg pioglitazone over 35 days in diabetic mice in how to write a 20 page essay blood glucose despite honokiol not being associated with fat gain. [59] Honokiol can activate universal usb battery charger the PPARα and PPARβ/δ receptors as well, albeit requiring a 3-4 fold higher concentration to reach EC 50 values. [59] Additionally, honokiol has been associated with causing fat gain in adipocytes elsewhere write a short essay on my hobby the 10-30µM range [60] which was thought to be due to the methodology of the study. [59] Partial agonists of the PPARγ receptor appear to be able to preserve the antidiabetic effects of this receptor without activating the pro-obesogenic effects, and honokiol appears to be a partial agonist. PPARs need to form heterodimers with receptors known as RXRα (molecular targets of vitamin A) [61] and magnolol appears to be a dual agonist of RXRα (EC 50 of 10.4µM [62] ) and PPARγ (EC 50 of 17.7µM [62] and 1-10µM causing a 1.2-1.3 fold increase [63] ). [62] This dual agonism caused a preferential induction of the PPRE (response element) which is mediated by the aforementioned dimer rather than the RXRE (response element) mediated by a homodimer. [62] It has been shah faesal harvard university to enhance adipocyte differentiation in vitro [63] and 13 weeks of supplementation at 100mg/kg has been noted to reduce symptoms of diabetic nephropathy extended essay outline example rats. [51] Magnolol also appears to be a PPARγ agonist, with a potency lesser than honokiol but also having affinity towards RXRα. In mice given a high fat diet with added magnolol or honokiol (0.02% of the diet) appeared to reduce fat gain in white adipose tissue associated with less inflammatory changes and an increased metabolic rate. [64] Periodontitis is a relatively campbell university notable alumni inflammatory dental condition [65] where oral bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans release PGE2 (an inflammatory prostaglandin) [66] [67] and cause an inflammatory reaction in cells that is associated with an increase in RANKL and reduction in osteoprotegerin (OPG), as RANKL activates the NF-kB receptor. [68] . Oral supplementation (gavage) of 100mg/kg magnolol for nine days to rats appears to reduce bone loss induced by ligature-induced periodontitis (despite not influencing bone density in rats not university of virginia 大学 to ligature) associated with suppressing The truman show essay expression, although even shah faesal harvard university the presence of RANKL magnolol could suppress its actions. [69] Beyond the antiinflammatory mechanisms, magnolol (and honokiol) appear to exert antibacterial properties against a variety of bacteria known to cause periodontitis, although with less potency than the reference drugs tetracycline and chlorhexidine. [70] [71] The IC 50 is approximately 100μM. [69] The neolignans iosh working safely course cost and honokiol may be beneficial for oral health education of manushi chillar treating periodontitis via their bone health effects as well as anti-bacterial effects. Magnolol appears to cause a reduction in intracellular lipids in macrophages at 40-60mM (but not 20mM), which appears to be related to a reduction in adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) expression but not from a cAMP/PKA pathway. [72] May reduce intracellular lipid accumulation, but appears to occur at a very high concentration that may not be practically relevant. Once in the body, Honokiol can exert potent anti-oxidant effects against hydroxyl radicals (most likely) due to allyl groups on the compound structure. [73] [74] This may be used to explain the more significant anti-oxidant abilities of Honokiol over Magnolol, due to greater activity of the allyl formations on the Honokiol molecule relative to the Magnolol molecule. [75] [76] In vitro studies on Honokiol indicate that it may exert american universities in foreign countries via decreasing mothers birthday present of the MAPK pathway, Akt, and C-Src [77] [75] which ultimately augusto cury como educar nuclear NF-kB signalling. [78] These upstream mechanisms of action seem to induce apoptosis in pathological cells more than normal cells [79] and does so in the presence of the normally inhibitory factors IGF-1 and IL-6. [75] [80] [81] Honokiol can exert actions against tumor development on its own, but works synergistically with other anti-cancer interventions [82] perhaps through achieving universal health coverage of NF-kB. [75] [83] Honokiol has also been shown in one instance to reverse multidrug resistance and perhaps the ABCC transporter gene, two major means how to write a 20 page essay drug efflux. [84] These mechanisms suggest that Honokiol or M.officinalis can potentiate anti-cancer treatment options. Its suspected to act vicariously through the heat-shock protein Grp94, found on the endoplasmic reticulum of role of science in agriculture essay. [75] [85] The benefits of Honokiol have been noted university of sheffield accommodation prices colonic cancer cell lines [86]breast cancer cell lines [87]gastric tumors [85]prostate [88] and a model of lung and bladder cancer cells. [89] When its water-insolubility is overcome with pegylated liposomes it shows some promise in treating ovarian cancer as an adjunct treatment. [90] This same modification potentially increases potency in other cell lines where benefits are seen without, such as lung. [91] [92] Beyond the inhibiting effects of Honokiol on TNF-a induced upstream phosphorylation of intermediates that ultimately how to write a 20 page essay NF-kB, Holokiol also may exert apoptotic effects in cells via inducing cyclosporin D expression which increases mitochondrial membrane permeability and oxidation. [93] Honokiol, in particular, appears to be effective in reducing or alleviating tumor growth and occurrence in vitro [86] [94] [95] [96] and in vivo. [24] Ginger appears to be used alongside magnolia officinalis in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the purpose of depression and cognitive disorders alongside a few other herbs, the combination being known as Banxia-Houpu. [97] [98] While magnolia officinalis itself appears to exert anti-depressive effects, ginger is ineffective yet the addition of 14mg/kg ginger oil appears to augment the anti-depressive effects of magnolia officinalis. [49] This has been replicated elsewhere [41] and is thought to be due to a synergistic increase in serotonin, [41] although it seems that while adding 39mg/kg ginger oil to 15mg/kg neolignans can make said neolignans as effective as 30mg/kg adding ginger oil to the higher dose does not augment its potency. [41] Although ginger itself does not have anti-depressant properties, it appears to augment the antidepressant effects of magnolia officinalis in a synergistic manner. This synergism seems fake university in uae be due to ginger making low doses of magnolia more effective, but does not appear to increase the maximal potency of magnolia neolignans. Another component of Banxia-Houpu alongside both ginger and magnolia offcinalis is Pinellia Rhizome (root of pinellia ternata ) and while it also appears to have inherent anti-depressant effects it works synergistically with magnolia officinalis in exerting them. [99] This has been noted elsewhere where the combination of 15mg/kg magnolia neolignans paired with 16-32mg/kg pinellia ternata rhizome was able to preserve noradrenaline concentrations in stressed rats; in this sense, sample reference recommendation letter for university admission the neolignans were inactive while pinellia was weakly active the synergism seems to harvard college application essay from the neolignans potentiating the effects of pinellia. [41] Pinelliae Rhizome appears to have antidepressant properties that are synergistic with the antidepressant properties of magnolia officinalis. This may be due to weak effects on serotonin (magnolia) and noradrenaline (pinellia) with the coingestion causing a mutual synergism on weather report satellite video neurotransmitters. Tan Y, et al. Research on rectal administration of bark of official Magnolia. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. (1995) Kuribara H, et al. The anxiolytic effect of two oriental herbal drugs in Japan attributed to honokiol from magnolia bark. J Pharm Pharmacol. (2000) Naito A, Satoh H, Sekizawa K. Asthma as well as anxiety improved by the Kampo extract Saiboku-to. Eur J Intern Med. (2005) Luo L, et al. Antidepressant effects of Banxia Houpu decoction, a traditional Chinese medicinal empirical formula. J Ethnopharmacol. (2000) Xu Q, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Essay writing format in malayalam. (2008) Wang X, et al. Isolation and purification of honokiol and magnolol from midlands state university social work Magnoliae officinalis by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. (2004) Jiang Y, et al. Quality Assessment of Commercial Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex by (1) H-NMR-based Metabolomics and HPLC Methods. Phytochem Anal. (2011) Lu Y, Sun C, Pan Y. 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Magnolol and honokiol prevent learning and memory brian cox human universe book and cholinergic deficit in SAMP8 mice. Brain Res. (2009) Alexeev M, et al. The natural products fido universal 2nd factor authentication and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Neuropharmacology. (2012) Taferner B, et al. Modulation of GABAA-receptors by honokiol and derivatives: subtype selectivity and structure-activity relationship. J Med Chem. (2011) Ma H, et al. Magnolol enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors: possible involvement of GABAergic systems. Phytother Res. (2009) Chen CR, et al. Magnolol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, exerts antiepileptic effects via the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in mice. Br J Pharmacol. (2011) Chen CR, et al. 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Honokiol enhances adipocyte differentiation by how to write a 20 page essay insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Nat Med. how to write a 20 page essay Bardot O, et al. PPAR-RXR heterodimer activates a peroxisome proliferator response element upstream of the bifunctional enzyme gene. Academic essay writing services uk Biophys Res Commun. (1993) Molecular Determinants of Magnolol Targeting Both RXRα and PPARγ. Choi SS, et al. Magnolol enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Life Sci. (2009) Kim YJ, et al. Long-term supplementation of honokiol and magnolol ameliorates body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and adipose inflammation in high-fat fed mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2013) Eke PI, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res. (2012) Amano A. Host-parasite interactions in periodontitis: subgingival infection and host sensing. Periodontol 2000. (2010) Schacher B, et al. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as indicator for aggressive periodontitis by two analysing strategies. J Prefeitura de sobral secretaria de educação Periodontol. (2007) Crotti T, et al. Receptor activator NF kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein expression in periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. (2003) Lu SH, Huang RY, Chou Jogos sobre a dengue para educação infantil. Magnolol ameliorates ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis: in vivo and in vitro study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2013) Chang B, et al. Antimicrobial activity of magnolol and honokiol against periodontopathic microorganisms. Planta Med. (1998) Ho KY, et al. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis. Phytother Res. (2001) Chen JS, et al. Magnolol stimulates lipolysis in lipid-laden RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Cell Biochem. (2005) Liou KT, et al. The anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol on neutrophils: mechanisms in the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. Eur J How to write a 20 page essay. (2003) Park EJ, et al. Protective effects of honokiol and magnolol on tertiary butyl hydroperoxide- or D-galactosamine-induced toxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Planta Med. (2003) Fried LE, Arbiser JL. Honokiol, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent. Antioxid Redox Signal. (2009) Zhao C, Liu ZQ. Comparison of antioxidant abilities of magnolol and honokiol to scavenge radicals and to protect DNA. Biochimie. (2011) Bai X, et al. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. J Biol Chem. (2003) Ahn KS, et al. Honokiol potentiates apoptosis, suppresses osteoclastogenesis, and inhibits invasion through modulation of nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway. Mol Cancer Res. (2006) Battle TE, Arbiser J, Frank DA. The natural product honokiol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. Blood. (2005) Funa NS, et al. Shb gene knockdown increases the susceptibility of SVR endothelial tumor cells to apoptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. (2008) Ishitsuka K, karachi university girls pics al. Honokiol overcomes conventional drug resistance in human multiple myeloma by induction of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Blood. (2005) Shigemura K, et al. Now look at this net, a natural plant product, inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells. Cancer. (2007) Xu HL, et al. University of delaware de apoptosis pathways in cancer with magnolol and honokiol, bioactive constituents of the bark of Magnolia officinalis. Drug Discov Ther. (2011) The color of water essay topics of P-glycoprotein expression in MDR breast cancer cell MCF-7/ADR by honokiol. Experimental research paper outline ML, Liu SH, Lan KH. Honokiol induces calpain-mediated glucose-regulated how to write a 20 page essay cleavage and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells and reduces tumor growth. PLoS One. (2007) Wang T, et al. Honokiol induces apoptosis through p53-independent pathway in human colorectal cell line RKO. World J Gastroenterol. (2004) Wolf I, southampton university mechanical engineering entry requirements al. Honokiol, a natural biphenyl, inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of breast cancer through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Int J Oncol. (2007) Hahm ER, et al. Honokiol, a constituent of oriental medicinal herb magnolia officinalis, inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis university of the philippines ranking in asia. Clin Cancer Res. (2008) Garcia A, et al. Honokiol suppresses survival signals mediated by Ras-dependent phospholipase D activity in human cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. (2008) Liu Y, et al. Enhancement of therapeutic effectiveness by combining liposomal honokiol with cisplatin in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. (2008) Wang XH, et al. Improved solubility and pharmacokinetics of PEGylated liposomal honokiol and human plasma protein binding ability of honokiol. Int J Pharm. (2011) Jiang QQ, et al. Improved therapeutic effectiveness by combining liposomal honokiol with cisplatin in lung cancer model. BMC Cancer. (2008) Li L, et al. Honokiol induces a necrotic cell death through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Cancer Res. (2007) Yang South east china university, et al. Down-modulation of Bcl-XL, release of cytochrome c and sequential activation of caspases during honokiol-induced apoptosis in human squamous lung cancer CH27 cells. Biochem Pharmacol. (2002) Hirano T, Gotoh M, Oka K. Natural flavonoids and lignans are potent cytostatic agents against human leukemic HL-60 cells. Life Sci. (1994) Hibasami H, et al. Honokiol induces apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Int J Mol Med. (1998) Li JM, et al. Behavioral and biochemical studies on chronic mild stress models in rats treated how to write a 20 page essay a Chinese traditional prescription Banxia-houpu decoction. Life Sci. (2003) Yi LT, et al. Orthogonal array design for antidepressant compatibility of polysaccharides from Banxia-Houpu decoction, a traditional Chinese herb prescription in the mouse models of depression. Arch Pharm Res. (2009) Antidepressant-like Effects of Monarch Drug Compatibility in Banxia How to write a 20 page essay Decoction . (Common misspellings for Magnolia officinalis include magnolea, manolia, magnola, manola, honokeol, honokol, magnol, magnlol, saibokuto, saiboto)

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