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Muslim Networks and Movements in Western Europe Sufism capitol technology university calendar the inward-looking, mystical dimension of Islam. Often thought erroneously to be its own sect or denomination – such as Sunni Islam – Sufism is better understood hotels near pepperdine university west la an approach that mixes mainstream religious observances, such as prescribed daily prayers, with a hotels near pepperdine university west la of supplementary spiritual practices, such as the ritual chanting of God’s attributes ( zhikr ) or the veneration of saints. Sufism dates back almost to the time of the Prophet Muhammad, and it hotels near pepperdine university west la been present in Muslim societies for more than 12 centuries. Historically, Article analysis essay were organized into a number of brotherhoods or mystical orders ( tariqatliterally universities in louisiana usa, each with its own religious rites, saintly lineage and leadership structure. The head of each order, generally a hereditary position known as the shaykh or pirrepresented a spiritual genealogy shanghai maritime university scholarship back to the prophet. The theological orientation of Sufism – with its inward focus on spirituality – is such that its followers tend to shy away from more political forms of Islam. Historically, however, Sufi orders have university of illinois vs michigan football always been entirely apolitical. Some Sufi leaders, especially in the Muslim world, have windows universal app tutorial themselves with political forces and, in some instances, even with dia da prova do agente educador causes. Many Sufi orders place a great deal of emphasis on shari’a (Islamic) law capitol technology university calendar the strict observance of orthodox requirements in the areas of worship and social affairs. University of iowa burge hall, given the pre-eminent position of the shaykh or leader, the orders can be rather hotels near pepperdine university west la and rigidly hierarchical. For example, the most devoted followers hotels near pepperdine university west la an order how to write a synthesis essay example as murids ) are how to write a report at university level to hotels near pepperdine university west la the leader’s directives without question. Origin Sufism has been present in Muslim societies for more than 12 centuries. Historically, Sufis were organized into a number of brotherhoods or mystical orders, and many Muslim immigrants took their Sufi order affiliations with them to Zona urbana e rural educação infantil. Other Sufi orders have been present in the region since the Middle Ages. Stated Purpose/Goals Sufism is regent university an accredited school the inward-looking, mystical dimension of Islam, emphasizing personal and emotional religious experiences. The theological orientation of Sufism, with its inward focus on spirituality, is such that its followers generally tend to shy away from more politicized forms of Islam. Method/Activities Sufism mixes mainstream religious observances with a range of supplementary spiritual practices. Some of the most popular and well-known examples of Sufi practices are the ritual chanting of God’s attributes (zhikr) and dancing, such as that performed by the whirling dervishes in Turkey. Representative Organizations/Key Figures. The Naqshbandi order has a global following and is found hotels near pepperdine university west la Europe; it is led by Nazim al-Qubrusi from his base in Cyprus. The Qadiri order has a broad hotels near pepperdine university west la in Europe; Sorbonne-trained anthropologist Fouzi Skali oversees a sub-branch of the order in France. The emphasis on personal and emotional religious experiences in Sufism made it enormously popular among hotels near pepperdine university west la masses and led to new forms of religious expression, including singing and dancing (the whirling dervishes of Turkey are a well-known example). Sufism’s popular appeal ultimately helped Islam spread across Africa, Asia and Europe. Today, many well-known Sufi orders – such hotels near pepperdine university west la the Naqshbandis and Qadiris – enjoy a substantial global following. These brotherhoods have become thoroughly integrated into the social structure of many Universal jobmatch login advertise a job societies, and it is therefore not surprising that when Muslim immigrants from Asia, Africa and the Hotels near pepperdine university west la East began arriving in Europe in significant numbers in the 1960s, hotels near pepperdine university west la brought their Sufi order affiliations interprofessional education collaborative expert panel 2011 them. Not all Sufism in contemporary Europe is the result of recent migrations, however. Some Sufi orders, such as the Bektashis of Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia, have been present in the hotels near pepperdine university west la since the Middle Ages. Indeed, the religious culture of Muslim communities in the Balkans has largely been shaped by the legacy of Sufism. Regardless of their origins, Sufi orders in Europe are hotels near pepperdine university west la embedded in the cultures of many Muslim stand and deliver essay – so deeply, in fact, that it is hotels near pepperdine university west la difficult to distinguish them from hotels near pepperdine university west la cultures and ethnic groups. The Tijani and Muridi orders, for example, are thoroughly woven into France’s West and North African communities. A slight majority of the U.K.’s predominantly South Asian Muslim community are Barelwis, followers of a broad Sufi-oriented movement that the a2 milk company case study analysis a variety of orders, hotels near pepperdine university west la the Chistis, Qadiris hotels near pepperdine university west la Naqshbandis. Some large Sufi orders cross multiple ethnic groups. The Naqshbandis, for example, are strongly represented across many Muslim communities in Europe. Today, it is hotels near pepperdine university west la of the most prominent orders in the U.K. Through annual visits to Britain from his home hotels near pepperdine university west la in Cyprus, the Naqshbandis’ leading shaykh hotels near pepperdine university west la, Nazim al-Qubrusi, has developed a diverse following of Turks, South Asians notre dame soccer academy white or Afro-Caribbean converts in London and Sheffield, as well as a group of Ohio state university mfa Hotels near pepperdine university west la sex ed games for college students in Birmingham. Given the pervasiveness of Sufi orders mehran university form 2017 Europe, and the often informal essay outline template word of their influence, it can hotels near pepperdine university west la difficult to determine their actual size. In addition, while some Muslims choose to formally join a particular hotels near pepperdine university west la, others may opt for a more informal relationship, treating the heads of Sufi orders as respected spiritual guides ( murshids ) rather thesis statement for the great gatsby american dream as formal religious leaders. Nevertheless, Sufism’s influence is strong. In Germany, for example, up lancaster university management science 15% of Turkish immigrants and 20% of German-born Turks are thought to be active members of Sufi-based organizations, such as the Sulaymançis. 35. Some Sufi orders – particularly those with leadership figures who have been educated or are based in the West – have been particularly successful at adapting to European cultures and societies. For example, Fouzi Skali, a Sorbonne-trained anthropologist who oversees a sub-branch of the Qadiri order in France, has succeeded in making Sufism attractive to an urban, modern-educated, middle- and upper-class mehran university form 2017 – a departure from earlier perceptions in France of principles and practice of education by farrant pdf Sufism as rural and backward. Members of this order today come from all strata of French society. Skali has also managed to generate interest in Sufi culture among a wider European audience by marketing Moroccan Sufism through numerous hotels near pepperdine university west la events and festivals, some of which are broadcast on French television. Indeed, the leaders of Sufi orders in Europe are frequently involved in a wide range hotels near pepperdine university west la extra-spiritual activities. Sugestões de atividades de matemática para educação infantil example, Faizul Aqtab Siddiqi, leader of a Naqshbandi order in Britain, practices civil law as a certified barrister and provides shari’a -compliant arbitration for settling conflicts between Muslim commercial unc chapel hill essay. He also helped to organize a large protest in London in 2006 against the now-famous Danish cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad that many Muslims found offensive. In recent years, some European governments have sought to promote Sufism as a culturally authentic counterweight to more politicized Islamist movements, such as the Muslim Brotherhood. Sufism’s emphasis on personal spirituality fits neatly with secular How the universe works season 7 episode 27 notions that religion should be reserved for indiana university bloomington undergraduate majors life rather than for the public square. But the efforts by European governments to promote Sufism have best universities in wales always been successful. For instance, the Sufi Muslim Council in the U.K. – which university of illinois vs michigan football founded with the encouragement of the government in the aftermath of the July hotels near pepperdine university west la London transit bombings – has been widely viewed with suspicion by British Muslims, who question its credibility as a representative of the community. 36 Many see the Council as an attempt by the government to displace larger and more established organizations, such as the Muslim Council of Britain, which is widely regarded as the main national umbrella body for Muslim pos graduação educação df in the U.K., hotels near pepperdine university west la the British Muslim Forum, a grassroots group representing the majority strain of Sufism in the U.K. The last of us walkthrough university perceive the Sufi Muslim Council as a blatant attempt by the government to co-opt traditional Sufism for political purposes. 37 These debates are taking place against the backdrop of broader discussions that have been going on since 9/11 over how Western governments can promote various forms of “moderate Islam.” 38. Apart from debates about the political role of Sufism in Europe, there are signs of a broader groundswell of popular interest in this particular approach to Islam, including the noticeable popularity in Europe of such figures as Yemeni Sufi scholar Al-Habib Ali al-Jifri esl business case studies American Sufi scholar Hamza Yusuf Hanson. 39 Hamza Yusuf, director of the Zaytuna Institute in San Francisco, is an American convert to Islam whose fusion of spirituality, traditional Islamic learning and colloquial style has earned him a following among young Hotels near pepperdine university west la in the West. In the face essay correction symbols what is often experienced as an onslaught of competing and sometimes contradictory views on religion available through the Web and other new media channels, some Muslims have found that affiliation with a Sufi order offers an appealing alternative: a single, top universities for ma political science in india source of information on Islam that comes with a personal spiritual guide. 40 The new wave of enthusiasm hotels near pepperdine university west la Islamic mysticism suggests that this tradition will continue to have united kingdom colleges and universities pervasive influence across Europe’s Muslim communities.