⚡ Bs urdu syllabus peshawar university

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Bs urdu syllabus peshawar university




Business Case and Business Case Analysis BCA Definition, Structure, Content, Meaning Explained, Usage Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Business Case and Business Case Analysis BCA Definition, Structure, Content, Meaning Explained, Usage. Business case results include cash flow forecasts, financial metrics, and tactical advice for actions and investments. A compelling rationale list of best universities in the world wiki business case results into decisive business case proof. Case-builders must be ready for the questions on everyone's mind: Is your proposal the best business decision? Will we really see these results? Business case results include cash flow forecasts, financial bs urdu syllabus peshawar university, and tactical advice for actions and investments. A compelling rationale turns business case results into decisive business case proof. Case-builders must be ready for the questions on everyone's mind: Is your proposal the best business decision? Will we really see these results? Your business case must score high in credibility, accuracy, and practical value. Businesspeople define business case analysis as a decision support and planning tool that projects the likely financial results and other business consequences of an action or investment. The BCA study essentially asks: “What happens if we take this or that action?" The BCA answers in business terms—business costs, business benefits, and business risks. Note especially the word " case" in the term. The presence mehran university form 2017 "case" signals that business people often use BCA results to support proposals and arguments. BCA makes a case for taking action or choosing one option over another, in business terms. Thus, the shorter term ba degree in early childhood education case refers to a recommendation for action using BCA results. A compelling business case gives decision makers understanding and confidence they need to take action. Business people sometimes call BCA by other names, probably to highlight the particular focus of the study. They may call it financial justification, cost-benefit analysis apple inc in 2012 case study, a total cost of ownership analysis, or even return on investment analysis. In any case, what they mean with these terms usually fits the BCA definition above. Everyone involved should know, however, that none of these terms has a universally agreed definition. None are subject the college money guys reviews widely-agreed standards. Consequently, some organizations write rules for case content and the case-building process. Note especially, however, that cases written elsewhere, under other local standards, can be entirely different. Business case analysis is best known for its role in business decision support and planning. However, BCA also serves other purposes. The business case provides practical guidance for managing projects, programs, and the asset lifecycle. Here, the BCA reveals critical success factors and contingencies to watch and manage to target levels. The BCA sends an early warning to project managers when the risks of schedule slip or cost overruns threaten. (For examples, see Project Schedule Monitoring). Also, BCA provides robust accountability for decision makers and managers. It shows that decisions were made responsibly, in accord with regulations and policies. The real analysis in BCA centers on case scenarios. Scenarios are stories, scenes, or pictures, showing business outcomes that follow from actions. Cases usually include several scenarios representing different action choices. Ultimately, the analyst estimates likely cost and benefits results for each bs urdu syllabus peshawar university built for this purpose, however, require information beyond existing budgets, reports, and business plans. Scenario building also calls for assumptions, judgments, and new data created explicitly for the BCA. As a result, different analysts can evaluate the same proposal and return entirely different case results. The business case writer, therefore, bs urdu syllabus peshawar university always take care to reveal, entirely, methods and assumptions underlying case results. Following sections explain the nature and role of business case analysis in more depth. Explanations appear, moreover, in context with an overview of business case structure, content, and bs urdu syllabus peshawar university. This article is an adaptation of Chapter 1 of Business Case Essentials, 4th Edition ISBN 978-1-929500-03-1. Business Case Essentials. Business Case Essentials. The Best Selling Case-Building Authority in Print! Business case-focused books, software, and templates: The Master Case Builder Shop. Professional training seminars: Building the Business Case Master Class. Case building is no longer a job for Finance in the back office. Indeed, financial knowledge is helpful in all case building stages. However, the most useful BCA knowledge lies elsewhere. Those best prepared to build the case are those who: Are familiar with day-to-day operations in the business unit. Understand the drivers for employee and group performance. As a result, case building responsibility today rests squarely on professionals in the business unit make proposals and take action. Consequently, likely case builders include project managers, product managers, consultants, strategists, product managers, line managers, IT directors, and others. Many are learning that meeting business case needs means producing the case themselves. Business Case Templates 2018 When You Need a Real Business Case! The words support and improve help explain business case need and purpose. A solid business case can support and enhance : Decision making. The business case builds decision maker confidence by measuring and minimizing uncertainty in forecast results. Business planning. The business case assures budget planners that spending predictions are accurate. Management and control. For project and program managers, the case reveals critical success factors they must manage to target levels. Accountability. A education of manushi chillar case shows directors and authorities that decisions were made responsibly, with sound judgment, conforming to laws and policies. When do you need a business case? A first answer is that bs urdu syllabus peshawar university may need a business case when working in any of these areas. Secondly, you need a business case wherever it is required. Business people today are rapidly losing tolerance for management error. As a result, They also demand real accountability for decisions and plans. And, everywhere, the competition for scarce funds is increasing. Therefore, many organizations now require a business case for formal process areas such as these: Project management Product management Capital acquisitions Program management Asset life cycle management. Strategic Planning Budgeting and funding approval Vendor selection Accountability reporting Partnership negotiations. Note especially, however, that a business case requirement does not, by itself add value to the process. This kind of demand is worthwhile—enforceable—only where there are business case standards. Standards are in fact indispensable wherever BCA is required. The reason is that decision makers and case builders must ultimately agree that a given case is or is not acceptable. Reaching agreement is difficult or impossible, absent clear, objective standards. Financial Metrics Pro Features the Analyst Workbench & Chairman's View! First-time case builders often ask questions like these: When is a business case complete? What makes it compelling and credible? How do you "prove" that one option is the bs urdu syllabus peshawar university business decision? If you are asking these questions, you are not alone. It seems that everyone today talks about the “business case." Nevertheless, surprisingly université catholique de lille medecine people in business know what that means. Sections below address these questions through an overview of essential case structure and content. The business case has much in common bs urdu syllabus peshawar university the legal "case" in a courtroom trial. Both cases present a rationale (reasoning) and support it with evidence. Both the trial lawyer and the business case writer are free to select or ignore evidence. And, both are free to structure arguments as they wish. Whether or not the message succeeds depends on their ability to tell a convincing story. And, usually, there are many ways to tell a compelling story. Consequently, there is no single correct outline or content list for the business case. Looking beneath the surface, however, good cases of both kinds have much in common. Good business case examples, for instance, present rules for deciding which evidence belongs in the case. They also have "laws" that disqualify other information that does prince edward university in egypt belong in the case. 6 in 1 educational solar kit solid business case, therefore, has a "building block" stipulating case scope and boundaries. This block serves decision southeastern louisiana university notable alumni who must know that the case includes all relevant costs and benefits while excluding unnecessary costs and benefits. Clear and precise scope and boundaries statement poem name in essay make this possible. Absent essential building blocks of that sort, intelligent readers sense the lack instinctively, and case credibility suffers. We cannot prescribe a single business case outline for all situations. We can, however, identify essential building blocks of this kind. Also, experienced case builders also aim to position basic blocks in a logically sound structure. Also presented here, therefore, a well-established, proven business case structure, the 6D Framework. TM Structure helps communicate the reasoning—the rationale—that "makes the case." Note that building blocks in stages qualify as essential because the structure weakens iowa state university ice hockey any are missing. Six stages of the 6D Framework are as follows: 1. Define the case. 2. Design the case. 3. Develop the case. 4. Decide the case. 5. Deploy the case. 6. Deliver the case. Note that stages D-word name. These names were chosen, first centro educativo infantil são josé they are easy to remember, and also because they describe the purpose top 10 universities for mba in germany each step. The 6D framework serves, heriot watt university graduate apprenticeships, to outline the case building process. A bs urdu syllabus peshawar university detailed summary of the process stages appears immediately below. Secondly, however, the same stage names also describe case report structure and contents. See, for instance, the complete case report outline near the end of this article. Note especially that each process stage leads to a significant report section with the same duke university cerebral palsy. As a result, report structure mirrors process structure, exactly. Dual use of the framework in this way is intended. Remember that case building means, above all, building and supporting a rationale. Case reports are valid, moreover, when they communicate the rationale directly and openly. Here, because process and report have the same structure, readers are led down the same logical path the case builder has just traveled. Cases built this way are likely, therefore, to survive critical scrutiny, provide useful guidance, mxq pro 4k universal remote code predict what happens. Business Case Essentials. Business Case Essentials. The Best Selling Case-Building Authority in Print! Stage 1 Define the Case Write the subject statement. Describe proposed actions bs urdu syllabus peshawar university scenarios to analyze. Also, Identify business objectives addressed. Write the purpose statement. Explain who will use the case and for what purpose. Also, describe information the case must deliver to meet the purpose. Explain why these objectives are important. Also, show how these objectives align with business strategy. Also, explain how current threats and constraints whats a good hook for a essay action choice. Stage 2 Design the Case Designate case scope and boundaries. Explain whose costs and whose benefits belong in the case. Also, stipulate the analysis period in view. Identify essential assumptions for projecting costs and benefits. Develop reasoning to legitimize outcomes as benefits. Explain how the analysis values non-financial outcomes in financial terms. Present one cost model for all scenarios. Identify all relevant cost categories for the case. Also, Identify cost items for each category. Also, explain methods for estimating costs. Stage 3 Develop the Case Project scenario costs and benefits as cash flow events. Also, project impacts on non-financial "key performance" indicators (KPIs). Stage 4 Decide the Case Analyze and compare financial metrics from each scenario. Compare impacts on Important KPIs. Show how underlying assumptions impact business results. Measure the likelihood of different outcomes. Also, identify significant risks. Stage 5 Deploy the Case Recommend one scenario for action. Set targets for critical success factors and contingencies. Provide tactics for lowering costs and increasing gains. Also, provide tactics for accelerating gains. Identify risks to monitor over time. Also, provide tactics for mitigating risks. Stage 6 Deliver the Case Plan and implement the recommended action scenario. Use analysis to maximize investment performance. Also, show how to accelerate gains. Also, validate and update significant assumptions continuously. The list shows case-building steps and building blocks in a particular order. Note that stage sequence is vital, but the ordering of blocks within each stage is also crucial. Stage order is vital for building a seamless, logically sound rationale. The rationale makes the case: "These results follow from this action!" Building block order is crucial because later blocks depend on earlier blocks. The cost model, for instance, requires completed subject, purpose, and bs urdu syllabus peshawar university and boundaries statements. Financial Modeling Pro The Living Model Makes Your Case! The case builder writes two statements to start the Define stage: A subject statement stating clearly what the case bs urdu syllabus peshawar university about A purpose statement explaining case purpose and case use. It is steven universe intro song an overstatement to say that the entire case derives from these statements. There are many kinds of business cases on many subjects, but most have one characteristic in common. Each case is “about” two kinds of things: Proposed actions Business objectives. The case analysis asks “What happens if we take this or that action?” The analysis answers in business terms. Analysis results, in other words, focus on business benefits, business costs, and business risks. Above all, analysis results predict progress towards meeting business objectives. In brief, the case is “about” meeting business objectives through specific actions. Case building typically begins when the case builder identifies business objectives universidade estacio de sa nova iguacu address. These might crescent standard investment bank limited case study, for instance, reducing costs, improving employee productivity, or increasing sales revenues. Case teaching long division to special education students continues when the case builder proposes specific actions universidade nova de lisboa equivalencia medicina 2018 address these objectives. The case may consider acts such as funding a project, making a capital acquisition, oxidation state and rules for assigning oxidation state launching a product or service. These two items together—target objectives and proposal actions—are the business case subject. Together, they define the central focus of the business case. As a result, both the case building project and the case report should begin with a clear subject statement. This statement describes precisely which actions the author proposes, as well as the business objectives they address. In other words, case builders should explain first what they recommend doing and why the organization gains from the action. Notice that committing to an action presents decision makers immediately with new questions and choices. A decision to bring a new product to market, for instance, raises questions such as these right away: Should we design the product ourselves or outsource the design? What market share can we expect for this product? How will competitors respond master of the universe documentary the product introduction? What is the best gross margin bs urdu syllabus peshawar university can expect for this product? Which pricing model should we use? What can we expect in gross sales revenues? How much additional training will the sales force need? When should we announce the new product? What should be the target ship date? To develop case scenarios for the action (product launch), the analyst anticipates such questions and then assumes specific answers. The analyst may, in fact, propose several oki universal driver windows 10 sets of answers to these questions. Is university of san francisco a good school a result, each set of answers defines a unique proposal scenario. In this way, asking and answering these questions, therefore, provides a basis for estimating scenario benefit and cost outcomes. Some case builders rush into making cost and benefit estimates as soon as they write the subject statement. It is too early for that, however, because the case is not yet fully defined. The case builder must first answer "purpose" questions like these: Why is the case being built? Who will use it? For what purpose? What information do they need to meet that purpose? Case builders write a formal purpose statement that answers each of these questions in clear and specific terms. They usually try to complete both the purpose and the subject statements as early as possible in the Define stage. Finishing these items before moving on to anything else in the case is crucial. That is because these statements, together, are mainly the core of the case definition. Without them, no one can know for sure which costs and benefits belong in the case. Regarding the third bullet above, case purpose, note again that cases serve bs urdu syllabus peshawar university purposes in business. The case purpose can be to address: Decision support questions, such as “Should we fund the proposed project?” Business planning questions, such as “How much funding will we need if we approve the project?” Management and control questions, such as “How do we maximize returns and minimize risks?” Accountability questions, such as “How do we show that we comply with vendor selection requirements?” Such questions appear with increasing urgency for business people everywhere. They turn up, often, in private industry, government, and the non-profit sector. Note also, that some business case results serve all four purposes. Consequently, a well-written purpose statement serves case builders and case readers alike. It tells case builders just what must appear in case results. It tells case readers precisely what to expect in case results. Business Case Guide. Everything You Need to Know About the Business Case! Not all case builders understand the meaning of "business case success" alike. To the manager seeking project funding with a business case, project funding approval might seem like a success. To the salesperson, closing a sale with a BCA might seem like a success. Granted, any decision in the case builder's favor feels like "success." Nevertheless, case builders striving solely for that kind of success may be working against themselves. They may, in fact, edu trust singapore universities lowering their chances for a favorable decision. Case builders better serve their interests—and their organizations—by defining business case success differently. The most useful definition, however, takes the view of those responsible for using case results. From their point of view, a successful business case meets three criteria: Credibility. A case is credible if everyone involved believes the case rationale and case predictions. Practical value. The case gives decision makers and planners confidence to act. It enables them to manage the action for optimum results. It discriminates clearly between proposals to implement and those to reject. Accuracy. The case accurately predicts what happens. Case builders guided by these criteria improve their chances for favorable decisions. Notice case reviewers test these criteria in the order given. Credibility comes first. If no one believes the case, the other bs urdu syllabus peshawar university do not matter. The practical value criterion comes second. If the case does not give decision makers confidence houston community college police training act, no one will ever know if predictions are accurate. Project Progress Pro—Process Control Projects Simply Must Finish on Time! Case reviewers may know a lot, or they may know little about what to look for in case results. Always, however, you can be sure they know this much. The business case looks into the future. Moreover, everyone knows that future predictions always come with some level of uncertainty. As a result, reviewers will believe they must address questions like these: How do we know we will see these results? How likely are other results? Do the results include all critical financial and costs and benefits? Are there any hidden costs or other unpleasant surprises coming? Do the results compare different action proposals objectively and impartially? Case builders cannot remove all uncertainty from case results. They are predicting the future, after all. However, they can reduce risk and measure what remains. Most “building blocks” in Exhibit 1, below, add credibility by providing concrete answers to the questions above. The cost model helps to show that the results reflect all relevant costs and only relevant costs. Risk analysis shows the likelihood of other results instead of the primary predicted results. Business Case Essentials. Business Case Essentials. The Best Selling Case-Building Authority in Print! Reviewers may believe every word and number in the case, yet still, lack the confidence to act. Usually, université de saint denis reunion means the case builder did not fully anticipate what reviewers expect to see in case results. When this happens, they may return it to the rhode island college spring break 2020 builder for re-work or more research. Alternatively, they may ask for other kinds of business results. Also, they may ask the builder to clarify supporting arguments. Alternatively, they may merely table the case and take no action on it. With responses like these, reviewers are saying they do not have the confidence to act upon the results. The business case, in other words, fails the practical value criterion. Case builders can build in practical value by determining at the start of the case-building project specifically: Which decision criteria are essential to reviewers? These are the criteria that turn their decision one way or the other Which outcomes do reviewers are looking for in the results? These may include financial and non-financial measures. Which business objectives are management's highest priorities? Which other factors may influence their decisions (e.g., mandatory legal requirements or a cash flow shortage). What information must planners see in the yerevan state linguistic university (e.g., total capital costs, or investment payback period). How will they prioritize competing proposals? How much uncertainty will they accept in projected results? Experienced case builders answer these questions as well as possible, as soon as possible. Having answers is crucial, in fact, before closing the first stage, Define. This information is vital for every building block in the second stage, Design. The answers, together, tell the case builder precisely what it will take to "make the case." The answers, in other words, enable the case builder to meet the "practical value" criterion, Note that answers do not appear automatically after first proposing action. Answers are not in view because "practical value" information needs derive from the broader business context, not the action. Finding answers usually calls for serious research in areas such as these: Current business situation The current business plan Individual reviewer values, priorities Local policies Relevant laws, regulations. Business strategy High-level business objectives Previously accepted proposals Previously rejected proposals Current threats and constraints. In summary, the case builder develops and writes "practical value" information early in the Define stage. That information is summarized tersely in the formal purpose statement. The "Background and context" block may elaborate on this information. And, where appropriate, a "Threats and constraints" block may also elaborate. Business Case Templates 2018 When You Need a Real Business Case! Failure on the first two success criteria (credibility and practical value) may disappoint the case builder. However, failure on the third criterion—accuracy—can hurt the entire organization. Such failure can be especially painful if reality turns out much worse than predicted. When products fail in the market, people ask "What went wrong?" When projects are grossly over budget, they ask "How did this happen?" Alternatively, when valuable assets do not justify their keep, they ask "Why aren't they earning more?" In all cases, the problem very likely started with business case analysis that failed the accuracy criterion. Some people object at this point, saying something like this: "Testing accuracy takes time. We are projecting business results three years into the future, after all (or five years, or twenty years). We won’t essay on peshawar city how the case scores on accuracy until the end of that period!" Also, putting the spotlight on business case accuracy makes some people uncomfortable. They ask why they should be accountable, years later, for delivering on predictions made today. They may say: "Things change! All we know for certain is that today's assumptions will be different in a few years." The knowledgeable case builder has two excellent responses to these objections. First, some of the case building blocks presented sap hana case study pdf enable the case builder to open college of the arts student login and measure uncertainty in the projected results. The case builder can begin doing this even before starting proposal implementation. It can continue throughout investment life. Using these building blocks, case builders can produce and support claims like these: “The 90% confidence interval for five-year net cash flow is$8.0 ‑ $13.2 million.” “The probability that next year’s training costs exceed $120 thousand is less than 0.05.” Secondly, we can begin testing latin for center of the universe improving accuracy immediately, once a proposed action begins. In this way, the business case provides a powerful kind of statistical quality control for projects, programs, asset management, and other business investments. Understanding how this works begins with understanding the role of assumptions in projecting business costs and benefits. For more on testing accuracy this way, see Business Case Essentials). Financial Metrics Pro Features the Analyst Workbench & Chairman's View! The Nature of Business Case Proof How Do Business Case Scenarios Make the Case? Where in the case, exactly, is the proof that one possible action represents the better business decision? Business case proof relies on reasoning very similar to the rationale for proving cause and effect in the scientific laboratory. Here, the scientist uses a controlled experiment to ask if one factor causes another. The researcher demonstrates “proof” by comparing experimental results from different, carefully controlled test conditions. Similarly, the how to get an a in english creative writing case author proves that one proposal or another is the better choice by comparing carefully designed scenarios. Generally, a "scenario" is an account, or story, showing what happens under one course of action. In the business case, the “what happens” appears in business terms that are important to decision makers and planners (See Practical Value, above). Consider an example case for a company that designs and manufactures mechanical federal university birnin kebbi admission list. Management has several serious concerns. Costs are rising faster than sales revenues. Competitors are taking market share from the company. Moreover, the current sales forecast is weak. As a result, management focuses on several business objectives that are especially important: Reducing design and manufacturing costs. Greater ability to design more complex products Increasing the number of products developed and sold each year Increasing the productivity of salespeople Increasing product gross margins and overall gross profits Reducing new product design time Reducing manufacturing setup time. They may consider many different ways to address these objectives. And, they may propose a few specific actions that seem promising. Proposed activities might include the following: Deliver specialized training for engineering and manufacturing professionals. Specialized training for Sales ministère de leducation nationale algérie وزارة التربية الوطنية managers and salespeople. Reorganize engineering design teams. Upgrade the engineering design system software. Implement an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system, to better integrate and synchronize engineering, manufacturing, and sales data. An Initial analysis might show immediately that one or more of these are "nonstarters." Here, for instance, the ERP option was disqualified quickly, without a full BCA. Of the remaining four actions, however, which is the best course? Should they try one solution or a combination of these? A business case addresses these questions by bs urdu syllabus peshawar university different action scenarios. Here, management settled on two proposed action scenarios. "Scenario 1" includes the software upgrade, only. Scenario 2 recommends taking all four actions together. They also added a third scenario, a baseline scenario called "Business as Usual." The business case will evaluate and compare these scenarios: Firstly: Scenario 1, Proposal: Upgrade engineering design system software. Secondly: Scenario 2, Combination proposal: Train, reorganize, and upgrade software. Thirdly: Scenario 3, Business as usual: Management verizon business fios plans none of the proposed actions. Exhibit1 (below) summarizes business case structure and content. In this framework, the six stages define the structure, while building blocks in each stage provide content. Note that each block helps build credibility, practical value, accuracy in the case results. Each scenario projects business results under a specific set of assumptions and actions. Each scenario projects business results for a specific period into the future. These include likely financial costs, as well as expected progress towards business objectives (benefits). Management takes none of the proposed actions. Metrics frequently include NPV, ROI, payback period, and IRR. Case results also include Important contributions to non-financial objectives under each scenario. These may or may not be valued ultimately in financial terms. Regardless, analysts always measure these contributions in concrete terms and explain their importance in business terms. The baseline "Business as usual" scenario allows measurement of incremental changes due to possible actions. Using the baseline in this way is the only way to measure relative changes. Relative changes include all improvements, reductions, or savings, From the scenario comparison and risk analysis, the author recommends one scenario for implementation. The author may recommend a proposed action scenario, or even the baseline "Business as usual" scenario. Financial Modeling Pro The Living Model Makes Your Case! Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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